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II: 08, 140-165, LNM 51 (1968)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Guide détaillé de la théorie ``générale'' des processus (General theory of processes)

This paper states and comments the essential results of a theory which was considered difficult in those times. New terminology was introduced (for instance, the accessible and previsible $\sigma$-fields) though not quite the definitive one (the word ``optional'' only timidly appears instead of the awkward ``well-measurable''). A few new results on the $\sigma$-fields ${\cal F}_{T-}$ and increasing processes are given at the end, the only ones to be proved

Comment: This paper had pedagogical importance in its time, but is now obsolete

Keywords: Previsible processes, Section theorems

Nature: Exposition

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III: 05, 97-114, LNM 88 (1969)

**DELLACHERIE, Claude**

Ensembles aléatoires I (Descriptive set theory, Markov processes, General theory of processes)

A deep theorem of Lusin asserts that a Borel set with countable sections is a countable union of Borel graphs. It is applied here in the general theory of processes to show that an optional set with countable sections is a countable union of graphs of stopping times, and in the theory of Markov processes, that a Borel set which is a.s. hit by the process at countably many times must be semi-polar

Comment: See Dellacherie,*Capacités et Processus Stochastiques,* Springer 1972

Keywords: Sets with countable sections

Nature: Original

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III: 10, 152-154, LNM 88 (1969)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Un résultat élémentaire sur les temps d'arrêt (General theory of processes)

This useful result asserts that a stopping time is accessible if and only if its graph is contained in a countable union of graphs of previsible stopping times

Comment: Before this was noticed, accessible stopping times were considered important. After this remark, previsible stopping times came to the forefront

Keywords: Stopping times, Accessible times, Previsible times

Nature: Original

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III: 11, 155-159, LNM 88 (1969)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Une nouvelle démonstration des théorèmes de section (General theory of processes)

The proof of the section theorems has improved over the years, from complicated-false to complicated-true, and finally to easy-true. This was a step on the way, due to Dellacherie (inspired by Cornea-Licea,*Z. für W-theorie,* **10**, 1968)

Comment: This is essentially the definitive proof, using a general section theorem instead of capacity theory

Keywords: Section theorems, Optional processes, Previsible processes

Nature: Original

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IV: 05, 60-70, LNM 124 (1970)

**DELLACHERIE, Claude**

Un exemple de la théorie générale des processus (General theory of processes)

In the case of the smallest filtration for which a given random variable is a stopping time, all the computations of the general theory can be performed explicitly

Comment: This example has become classical. See for example Dellacherie-Meyer,*Probabilités et Potentiel,* Chap IV. On the other hand, it can be extended to deal with (unmarked) point processes: see Chou-Meyer 906

Keywords: Stopping times, Accessible times, Previsible times

Nature: Original

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V: 15, 147-169, LNM 191 (1971)

**MAISONNEUVE, Bernard**

Ensembles régénératifs, temps locaux et subordinateurs (General theory of processes, Renewal theory)

New approach to the theory of regenerative sets (Kingman; Krylov-Yushkevic 1965, Hoffmann-Jørgensen,*Math. Scand.*, **24**, 1969), including a general definition of local time of a random set

Comment: See Meyer 412, Morando-Maisonneuve 413, later work of Maisonneuve in 813 and later

Keywords: Local times, Subordinators, Renewal theory

Nature: Original

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V: 29, 290-310, LNM 191 (1971)

**WALSH, John B.**

Some topologies connected with Lebesgue measure (Markov processes, General theory of processes, Potential theory)

It is a recurrent theme in the theory of stochastic processes that time sets of measure $0$ should be ignored. Thus topologies on the line which ignore sets of measure $0$ are useful. The main topic here is the so-called*essential topology,* used in the paper of Chung and Walsh 522 in the same volume

Comment: See Doob*Bull. Amer. Math. Soc.*, **72**, 1966. An important application in given by Walsh 623 in the next volume. See the paper 1025 of Benveniste. For the use of a different topology see Ito *J. Math. Soc. Japan,* **20**, 1968

Keywords: Essential topology

Nature: Original

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VI: 02, 35-50, LNM 258 (1972)

**AZÉMA, Jacques**

Une remarque sur les temps de retour. Trois applications (Markov processes, General theory of processes)

This paper is the first step in the investigations of Azéma on the ``dual'' form of the general theory of processes (for which see Azéma (*Ann. Sci. ENS,* **6**, 1973, and 814). Here the $\sigma$-fields of cooptional and coprevisible sets are introduced in a Markovian set-up, and without their definitive names. A section theorem by return times is proved, and applications to the theory of Markov processes are given

Keywords: Homogeneous processes, Coprevisible processes, Cooptional processes, Section theorems, Projection theorems, Time reversal

Nature: Original

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VI: 05, 90-97, LNM 258 (1972)

**CHUNG, Kai Lai**

On universal field equations (General theory of processes)

There is a pun in the title, since ``field'' here is a $\sigma$-field and not a quantum field. The author proves useful results on the $\sigma$-fields ${\cal F}_{T-}$ and ${\cal F}_{T+}$ associated with an arbitrary random variable $T$ in the paper of Chung-Doob,*Amer. J. Math.*, **87**, 1965. As a corollary, he can prove easily that for a Hunt process, accessible = previsible

Keywords: Filtrations

Nature: Original

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VI: 10, 113-117, LNM 258 (1972)

**MAISONNEUVE, Bernard**

Topologies du type de Skorohod (General theory of processes)

This paper presents an adaptation of the well known Skorohod topology, to the case of an arbitrary (i.e., non-compact) interval of the line

Keywords: Skorohod topology

Nature: Original

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VI: 14, 159-163, LNM 258 (1972)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Temps d'arrêt algébriquement prévisibles (General theory of processes)

The main results concern the natural filtration of a right continuous process taking values in a Polish spaces, and defined on a Blackwell space $\Omega$. Conditions are given on a process or a random variable on $\Omega$ which insure that it will be previsible or optional under any probability law on $\Omega$

Comment: The subject has been kept alive by Azéma, who used similar techniques in several papers

Keywords: Stopping times, Previsible processes

Nature: Original

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VII: 04, 36-37, LNM 321 (1973)

**DELLACHERIE, Claude**

Temps d'arrêt totalement inaccessibles (General theory of processes)

Given an accessible random set $H$ and a totally inaccessible stopping time $T$, whenever $T(\omega)\in H(\omega)$ then $T(\omega)$ is a condensation point of $H(\omega)$ on the left, i.e., there are uncountably many points of $H$ arbitrarily close to $T(\omega)$ on the left

Keywords: Stopping times, Accessible sets, Totally inaccessible stopping times

Nature: Original

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VII: 05, 38-47, LNM 321 (1973)

**DELLACHERIE, Claude**

Sur les théorèmes fondamentaux de la théorie générale des processus (General theory of processes)

This paper reconstructs the general theory of processes starting from a suitable family ${\cal V }$ of stopping times, and the $\sigma$-field generated by stochastic intervals $[S,T[$ with $S,T\in{\cal V }$, $S\le T$. Section and projection theorems are proved

Comment: The idea of this paper has proved fruitful. See for instance Lenglart, 1449; Le Jan,*Z. für W-Theorie * **44**, 1978

Keywords: Stopping times, Section theorems

Nature: Original

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VII: 18, 180-197, LNM 321 (1973)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Résultats d'Azéma en théorie générale des processus (General theory of processes)

This paper presents several results from a paper of Azéma (*Invent. Math.*, **18**, 1972) which have become (in a slightly extended version) standard tools in the general theory of processes. The problem is that of ``localizing'' a time $L$ which is not a stopping time. With $L$ are associated the supermartingale $c^L_t=P\{L>t|{\cal F}_t\}$ and the previsible increasing processes $p^L$ which generates it (and is the dual previsible projection of the unit mass on the graph of $L$). Then the left support of $dp^L$ is the smallest left-closed previsible set containing the graph of $L$, while the set $\{c^L_-=1\}$ is the greatest previsible set to the left of $L$. Other useful results are the following: given a progressive process $X$, the process $\limsup_{s\rightarrow t} X_s$ is optional, previsible if $s<t$ is added, and a few similar results

Comment: These results have been included (with their optional counterpart, whose interest was discovered later) in Dellacherie-Meyer,*Probabilités et Potentiel*, Vol. E, Chapter XX **12**--17

Keywords: Optimal stopping, Previsible processes

Nature: Exposition

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VII: 22, 217-222, LNM 321 (1973)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Sur les désintégrations régulières de L. Schwartz (General theory of processes)

This paper presents a small part of an important article of L.~Schwartz (*J. Anal. Math.*, **26**, 1973). The main result is an extension of the classical theorem on the existence of regular conditional probability distributions: on a good filtered probability space, the previsible and optional projections of a process can be computed by means of true kernels

Comment: The contents of this paper have been considerably developed by F.~Knight in his theory of prediction. See 1007

Keywords: Previsible projections, Optional projections, Prediction theory

Nature: Exposition, Original additions

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VII: 23, 223-247, LNM 321 (1973)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Sur un problème de filtration (General theory of processes)

This is an attempt to present, in the usual language of the seminar, a a simple case from filtering theory (additive white noise in one dimension). The results proved are the Kallianpur-Striebel formula (*Ann. Math. Stat.*, **39**, 1968) and a theorem of Clark

Keywords: Filtering theory, Innovation

Nature: Exposition

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VIII: 04, 22-24, LNM 381 (1974)

**DELLACHERIE, Claude**

Un ensemble progressivement mesurable... (General theory of processes)

The set of starting times of Brownian excursions from $0$ is a well-known example of a progressive set which does not contain any graph of stopping time. Here it is shown that considering the same set for the excursions from any $a$ and taking the union of all $a$, the corresponding set has the same property and has uncountable sections

Comment: Other such examples are known, such as the set of times at which the law of the iterated logarithm fails

Keywords: Progressive sets, Section theorems

Nature: Original

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VIII: 05, 25-26, LNM 381 (1974)

**DELLACHERIE, Claude**

Intégrales stochastiques par rapport aux processus de Wiener et de Poisson (General theory of processes)

This paper shows that the previsible representation property of Brownian motion and the (compensated) Poisson processes is a consequence of the Wiener and Poisson measures being unique solutions of martingale problems

Comment: A gap in the proof is filled in 928 and 2002. This is a very important paper, opening the way to a series of investigations on the relations between previsible representation and extremality. See Jacod-Yor,*Z. für W-theorie,* **38**, 1977 and Yor 1221. For another approach to the restricted case considered here, see Ruiz de Chavez 1821. The previsible representation property of Brownian motion and compensated Poisson process was know by Itô; it is a consequence of the (stronger) chaotic representation property, established by Wiener in 1938. The converse was also known by Itô: among the martingales which are also Lévy processes, only Brownian motions and compensated Poisson processes have the previsible representation property

Keywords: Brownian motion, Poisson processes, Previsible representation

Nature: Original

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VIII: 14, 262-288, LNM 381 (1974)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Les travaux d'Azéma sur le retournement du temps (General theory of processes, Markov processes)

This paper is an exposition of a paper by Azéma (*Ann. Sci. ENS,* **6**, 1973) in which the theory ``dual'' to the general theory of processes was developed. It is shown first how the general theory itself can be developed from a family of killing operators, and then how the dual theory follows from a family of shift operators $\theta_t$. A transience hypothesis involving the existence of many ``return times'' permits the construction of a theory completely similar to the usual one. Then some of Azéma's applications to the theory of Markov processes are given, particularly the representation of a measure not charging $\mu$-polar sets as expectation under the initial measure $\mu$ of a left additive functional

Comment: This paper follows (with considerable progress) the line of 602. The names given by Azéma to right and left additive functionals are exchanged. Another difference with Azéma's original paper is the fact that the lifetime $\zeta$ does not appear. All these results have been included in Dellacherie-Maisonneuve-Meyer,*Probabilités et Potentiel,* Chapter XVIII, 1992

Keywords: Time reversal, Shift operators, Killing operators, Cooptional processes, Coprevisible processes, Additive functionals, Left additive functionals

Nature: Exposition, Original additions

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IX: 02, 97-153, LNM 465 (1975)

**BENVENISTE, Albert**

Processus stationnaires et mesures de Palm du flot spécial sous une fonction (Ergodic theory, General theory of processes)

This paper takes over several topics of 901, with important new results and often with simpler proofs. It contains results on the existence of ``perfect'' versions of helixes and stationary processes, a better (uncompleted) version of the filtration itself, a more complete and elegant exposition of the Ambrose-Kakutani theorem, taking the filtration into account (the fundamental counter is adapted). The general theory of processes (projection and section theorems) is developed for a filtered flow, taking into account the fact that the filtrations are uncompleted. It is shown that any bounded measure that does not charge ``polar sets'' is the Palm measure of some increasing helix (see also Geman-Horowitz (*Ann. Inst. H. Poincaré,* **9**, 1973). Then a deeper study of flows under a function is performed, leading to section theorems of optional or previsible homogeneous sets by optional or previsible counters. The last section (written in collaboration with J.~Jacod) concerns a stationary counter (discrete point process) in its natural filtration, and its stochastic intensity: here it is shown (contrary to the case of processes indexed by a half-line) that the stochastic intensity does not determine the law of the counter

Keywords: Filtered flows, Flow under a function, Ambrose-Kakutani theorem, Helix, Palm measures, Perfection, Point processes

Nature: Original

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IX: 06, 226-236, LNM 465 (1975)

**CHOU, Ching Sung**; **MEYER, Paul-André**

Sur la représentation des martingales comme intégrales stochastiques dans les processus ponctuels (General theory of processes)

Dellacherie has studied in 405 the filtration generated by a point process with one single jump. His study is extended here to the filtration generated by a discrete point process. It is shown in particular how to construct a martingale which has the previsible representation property

Comment: In spite or because of its simplicity, this paper has become a standard reference in the field. For a general account of the subject, see He-Wang-Yan,*Semimartingale Theory and Stochastic Calculus,* CRC~Press 1992

Keywords: Point processes, Previsible representation

Nature: Original

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IX: 08, 239-245, LNM 465 (1975)

**DELLACHERIE, Claude**; **MEYER, Paul-André**

Un nouveau théorème de projection et de section (General theory of processes)

Optional section and projection theorems are proved without assuming the ``usual conditions'' on the filtration

Comment: This paper is obsolete. As stated at the end by the authors, the result could have been deduced from the general theorem in Dellacherie 705. The result takes its definitive form in Dellacherie-Meyer,*Probabilités et Potentiel,* theorems IV.84 of vol. A and App.1, \no~6

Keywords: Section theorems, Optional processes, Projection theorems

Nature: Original

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IX: 25, 466-470, LNM 465 (1975)

**MEYER, Paul-André**; **YAN, Jia-An**

Génération d'une famille de tribus par un processus croissant (General theory of processes)

The previsible and optional $\sigma$-fields of a filtration $({\cal F}_t)$ on $\Omega$ are studied without the usual hypotheses: no measure is involved, and the filtration is not right continuous. It is proved that if the $\sigma$-fields ${\cal F}_{t-}$ are separable, then so is the previsible $\sigma$-field, and the filtration is the natural one for a continuous strictly increasing process. A similar result is proved for the optional $\sigma$-field assuming $\Omega$ is a Blackwell space, and then every measurable adapted process is optional

Comment: Making the filtration right continuous generally destroys the separability of the optional $\sigma$-field

Keywords: Previsible processes, Optional processes

Nature: Original

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IX: 28, 494-494, LNM 465 (1975)

**DELLACHERIE, Claude**

Correction à ``Intégrales stochastiques par rapport...'' (General theory of processes)

This paper completes a gap in the simple proof of the previsible representation property of the Wiener process, given by Dellacherie 805

Comment: Another way of filling this gap is given by Ruiz de Chavez 1821. The same gap for the Poisson process is corrected in 2002

Keywords: Previsible representation

Nature: Original

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IX: 37, 556-564, LNM 465 (1975)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Retour aux retournements (Markov processes, General theory of processes)

The first part of the talk is devoted to an important correction to the theorem on p.285 of 814 (Azéma's theory of cooptional and coprevisible sets and its application to Markov processes): the definition of left additive functionals should allow an a.s. explosion at time 0 for initial points belonging to a polar set. The second part belongs to the general theory of processes: if the index set is not the right half-line as usual but the left half-line, the section and projection theorems must be modified in a not quite trivial way

Comment: See Chapter XXVIII of Dellacherie-Maisonneuve-Meyer*Probabilités et potentiel *

Keywords: Time reversal, Cooptional processes, Coprevisible processes, Homogeneous processes

Nature: Exposition, Original additions

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X: 07, 86-103, LNM 511 (1976)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

La théorie de la prédiction de F. Knight (General theory of processes)

This paper is devoted to the work of Knight,*Ann. Prob.* **3**, 1975, the main idea of which is to associate with every reasonable process $(X_t)$ another process, taking values in a space of probability measures, and whose value at time $t$ is a conditional distribution of the future of $X$ after $t$ given its past before $t$. It is shown that the prediction process contains essentially the same information as the original process (which can be recovered from it), and that it is a time-homogeneous Markov process

Comment: The results are related to those of Schwartz (presented in 722), the main difference being that the future is predicted instead of the whole path. Knight has devoted to this subject the*Essays on the Prediction Process,* Hayward Inst. of Math. Stat., 1981, and a book, *Foundations of the Prediction Process,* Oxford Science Publ. 1992

Keywords: Prediction theory

Nature: Exposition, Original additions

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X: 08, 104-117, LNM 511 (1976)

**MEYER, Paul-André**; **YOR, Marc**

Sur la théorie de la prédiction, et le problème de décomposition des tribus ${\cal F}^{\circ}_{t+}$ (General theory of processes)

This paper contains another version of Knight's theory (preceding paper 1007) for cadlag process instead of measurable processes. These results then are applied to the pathology of germ fields: a natural measurability conjecture does not hold, and an example is given of a process $X_t$ such that its natural $\sigma$-field ${\cal F}_{1+}$ is not generated by ${\cal F}_{1}$ and the germ-field at $0$ of the process $(X_{1+s})$

Comment: On the pathology of germ fields, see H. von Weizsäcker,*Ann. Inst. Henri Poincaré,* **19**, 1983

Keywords: Prediction theory, Germ fields

Nature: Original

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X: 09, 118-124, LNM 511 (1976)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Generation of $\sigma$-fields by step processes (General theory of processes)

On a Blackwell measurable space, let ${\cal F}_t$ be a right continuous filtration, such that for any stopping time $T$ the $\sigma$-field ${\cal F}_T$ is countably generated. Then (discarding possibly one single null set), this filtration is the natural filtration of a right-continuous step process

Comment: This answers a question of Knight,*Ann. Math. Stat.*, **43**, 1972

Keywords: Point processes

Nature: Original

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X: 17, 245-400, LNM 511 (1976)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Un cours sur les intégrales stochastiques (6 chapters) (Stochastic calculus, Martingale theory, General theory of processes)

This is a systematic exposition of the theory of stochastic integration with respect to semimartingales, with the exception of stochastic differential equations. Chapter I is devoted to a quick exposition of the general theory of processes, and of the trivial stochastic integral with respect to a process of finite variation. Chapter II is the Kunita-Watanabe theory of square integrables martingales, angle and square bracket, stable subspaces, compensated sums of jumps, and the corresponding $L^2$ theory of stochastic integration. Chapter III studies a restricted class of semimartingales and introduces the Ito formula, with its celebrated applications due to Watanabe, to Brownian motion and the Poisson process. Chapter IV localizes the theory and gives the general definitions of semimartingales and special semimartingales, and studies the stochastic exponential, multiplicative decomposition. It also sketches a theory of multiple stochastic integrals. Chapter V deals with the application of the spaces $H^1$ and $BMO$ to the theory of stochastic integration, and to martingales inequalities (it contains the extension to continuous time of Garsia's ``Fefferman implies Davis implies Burkholder'' approach). Chapter VI contains more special topics: Stratonovich integrals, Girsanov's theorem, local times, representation of elements of $BMO$

Comment: This set of lectures was well circulated in its time, an intermediate stage between a research paper and a polished book form. See also 1131. Now the material can be found in many books

Keywords: Increasing processes, Stable subpaces, Angle bracket, Square bracket, Stochastic integrals, Optional stochastic integrals, Previsible representation, Change of variable formula, Semimartingales, Stochastic exponentials, Multiplicative decomposition, Fefferman inequality, Davis inequality, Stratonovich integrals, Burkholder inequalities, $BMO$, Multiple stochastic integrals, Girsanov's theorem

Nature: Exposition, Original additions

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X: 25, 521-531, LNM 511 (1976)

**BENVENISTE, Albert**

Séparabilité optionnelle, d'après Doob (General theory of processes)

A real valued function $f(t)$ admits a countable set $D$ as a separating set if the graph of $f$ is contained in the closure of its restriction to $D$. Doob's well known theorem asserts that every process $X$ has a modification all sample functions of which admit a common separating set $D$ (deterministic). It is shown that if $D$ is allowed to consist of (the values of) countably many stopping times, then every optional process is separable without modification. Applications are given

Comment: Doob's original paper appeared in*Ann. Inst. Fourier,* **25**, 1975. See also 1105

Keywords: Optional processes, Separability, Section theorems

Nature: Exposition, Original additions

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XI: 02, 21-26, LNM 581 (1977)

**BENVENISTE, Albert**

Application d'un théorème de G. Mokobodzki à la théorie des flots (Ergodic theory, General theory of processes)

The purpose of this paper is to extend to the theory of filtered flows (for which see 901 and 902) the dual version of the general theory of processes due to Azéma (for which see 814 and 937), in particular the association with any measurable process of suitable projections which are homogeneous processes. An important difference here is the fact that the time set is the whole line. Here the class of measurable processes which can be projected is reduced to a (not very explicit) class, and a commutation theorem similar to Azéma's is proved. The proof uses the technique of*medial limits * due to Mokobodzki (see 719), which in fact was developed precisely at the author's request to solve this problem

Keywords: Filtered flows, Stationary processes, Projection theorems, Medial limits

Nature: Original

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XI: 05, 47-50, LNM 581 (1977)

**DELLACHERIE, Claude**

Deux remarques sur la séparabilité optionnelle (General theory of processes)

Optional separability was defined by Doob,*Ann. Inst. Fourier,* **25**, 1975. See also Benveniste, 1025. The main remark in this paper is the following: given any optional set $H$ with countable dense sections, there exists a continuous change of time $(T_t)$ indexed by $[0,1[$ such that $H$ is the union of all graphs $T_t$ for $t$ dyadic. Thus Doob's theorem amounts to the fact that every optional process becomes separable in the ordinary sense once a suitable continuous change of time has been performed

Keywords: Optional processes, Separability, Changes of time

Nature: Original

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XI: 06, 51-58, LNM 581 (1977)

**DUDLEY, Richard M.**; **GUTMANN, Sam**

Stopping times with given laws (General theory of processes)

Given a filtration ${\cal A}_t$ such that for all $t>0$ the law $P$ restricted to ${\cal A}_t$ is non-atomic, then for every law $\mu$ on the half-line there exists a stopping time with law $\mu$. The proof uses an interesting measure theoretic lemma on decreasing sequences of non-atomic $\sigma$-fields

Comment: It follows that the Brownian filtration contains a process whose law is that of a Poisson process (though of course it is not a Poisson process*of the Brownian filtration *)

Keywords: Stopping

Nature: Original

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XI: 08, 65-78, LNM 581 (1977)

**EL KAROUI, Nicole**; **MEYER, Paul-André**

Les changements de temps en théorie générale des processus (General theory of processes)

Given a filtration $({\cal F}_t)$ and a continuous adapted increasing process $(C_t)$, consider its right inverse $(j_t)$ and left inverse $(i_t)$, and the time-changed filtration $\overline{\cal F}_t={\cal F}_{j_t}$. The problem is to study the relation between optional/previsible processes of the time-changed filtration and time-changed optional/previsible processes of the original filtration, to see how the projections or dual projections are related, etc. The results are satisfactory, and require a lot of care

Comment: This paper was originally an exposition by the second author of an unpublished paper of the first author, and many ``I''s remained in spite of the final joint autorship. See the next paper 1109 for the discontinuous case

Keywords: Changes of time

Nature: Original

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XI: 09, 79-108, LNM 581 (1977)

**EL KAROUI, Nicole**; **WEIDENFELD, Gérard**

Théorie générale et changement de temps (General theory of processes)

The results of the preceding paper 1108 are extended to arbitrary changes of times, i.e., without the continuity assumption on the increasing process. They require even more care

Comment: Unfortunately, the material presentation of this paper is rather poor. For related results, see 1333

Keywords: Changes of time

Nature: Original

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XI: 10, 109-119, LNM 581 (1977)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Convergence faible de processus, d'après Mokobodzki (General theory of processes)

The following simple question of Benveniste was answered positively by Mokobodzki (*Séminaire de Théorie du Potentiel,* Lect. Notes in M. 563, 1976): given a sequence $(U^n)$ of optional processes such that $U^n_T$ converges weakly in $L^1$ for every stopping time $T$, does there exist an optional process $U$ such that $U^n_T$ converges to $U_T$? The proof is rather elaborate

Keywords: Weak convergence in $L^1$

Nature: Exposition

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XI: 14, 257-297, LNM 581 (1977)

**YOR, Marc**

Sur les théories du filtrage et de la prédiction (General theory of processes, Markov processes)

To be completed

Comment: MR 57, 10801

Keywords: Filtering theory, Prediction theory

Nature: Original

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XI: 28, 415-417, LNM 581 (1977)

**LENGLART, Érik**

Une caractérisation des processus prévisibles (General theory of processes)

One of the results of this short paper is the following: a bounded optional process $X$ is previsible if and only if, for every martingale $M$ of integrable variation, the Stieltjes integral process $X\sc M$ is a martingale

Keywords: Previsible processes

Nature: Original

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XI: 34, 493-501, LNM 581 (1977)

**YOR, Marc**

A propos d'un lemme de Ch. Yoeurp (General theory of processes, Martingale theory)

Yoeurp's lemma is the following: if $A$ is a previsible process of bounded variation, its square bracket $[A,L]$ with any local martingale $L$ is a local martingale. This useful result was not easily accessible, thus a complete proof is given, with several new applications---in particular, this characterizes previsible processes of bounded variation among semimartingales

Keywords: Yoeurp's lemma, Square bracket

Nature: Original

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XII: 03, 22-34, LNM 649 (1978)

**JACOD, Jean**

Projection prévisible et décomposition multiplicative d'une semi-martingale positive (General theory of processes)

The problem discussed is the decomposition of a positive ($\ge0$) special semimartingale $X$ (the most interesting cases being super- and submartingales) into a product of a positive local martingale and a positive previsible process of finite variation. The problem is solved here in the greatest possible generality, on a maximal non-vanishing domain for $X$---this is a previsible stochastic interval $[0,S)$ which at $S$ may be open or closed

Comment: This papers improves on 1021 and 1023

Keywords: Semimartingales, Multiplicative decomposition

Nature: Original

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XII: 04, 35-46, LNM 649 (1978)

**MÉMIN, Jean**

Décompositions multiplicatives de semimartingales exponentielles et applications (General theory of processes)

It is shown that, given two semimartingales $U,V$ such that $U$ has no jump equal to $-1$, there is a unique semimartingale $X$ such that ${\cal E}(X)\,{\cal E}(U)={\cal E}(V)$. This result is applied to recover all known results on multiplicative decompositions

Comment: The results of this paper are used in Mémin-Shiryaev 1312

Keywords: Stochastic exponentials, Semimartingales, Multiplicative decomposition

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XII: 08, 57-60, LNM 649 (1978)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Sur un théorème de J. Jacod (General theory of processes)

Consider a given process $X$ adapted to a given filtration $({\cal F}_t)$. The set of laws of semimartingales consists of those laws $P$ under which $X$ is a semimartingale with respect to $({\cal F}_t)$ suitably completed. Jacod proved that the set of laws of semimartingales is convex. This is extended here to countable convex combinations, and to integrals

Comment: This easy paper has some historical interest, as it raised the problem of initial enlargement of a filtration

Keywords: Semimartingales, Enlargement of filtrations, Laws of semimartingales

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XII: 09, 61-69, LNM 649 (1978)

**YOR, Marc**

Grossissement d'une filtration et semi-martingales~: théorèmes généraux (General theory of processes)

Given a filtration $({\cal F}_t)$ and a positive random variable $L$, the so-called*progressively enlarged * filtration is the smallest one $({\cal G}_t)$ containing $({\cal F}_t)$, and for which $L$ is a stopping time. The enlargement problem consists in describing the semimartingales $X$ of ${\cal F}$ which remain semimartingales in ${\cal G}$, and in computing their semimartingale characteristics. In this paper, it is proved that $X_tI_{\{t< L\}}$ is a semimartingale in full generality, and that $X_tI_{\{t\ge L\}}$ is a semimartingale whenever $L$ is *honest * for $\cal F$, i.e., is the end of an $\cal F$-optional set

Comment: This result was independently discovered by Barlow,*Zeit. für W-theorie,* 44, 1978, which also has a huge intersection with 1211. Complements are given in 1210, and an explicit decomposition formula for semimartingales in 1211

Keywords: Enlargement of filtrations, Honest times

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XII: 10, 70-77, LNM 649 (1978)

**DELLACHERIE, Claude**; **MEYER, Paul-André**

A propos du travail de Yor sur le grossissement des tribus (General theory of processes)

This paper adds a few comments and complements to the preceding one 1209; for instance, the enlargement map is bounded in $H^1$

Keywords: Enlargement of filtrations, Honest times

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XII: 11, 78-97, LNM 649 (1978)

**JEULIN, Thierry**; **YOR, Marc**

Grossissement d'une filtration et semi-martingales~: Formules explicites (General theory of processes)

This contains very substantial improvements on 1209, namely, the explicit computation of the characteristics of the semimartingales involved

Comment: For additional results on enlargements, see the two Lecture Notes volumes**833** (T. Jeulin) and **1118**. See also 1350

Keywords: Enlargement of filtrations, Honest times

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XII: 25, 364-377, LNM 649 (1978)

**STRICKER, Christophe**

Les ralentissements en théorie générale des processus (General theory of processes)

Given a filtration $({\cal F}t)$ and a stopping time $T$, we may define a new filtration $({\cal G}_t)$ as follows: we introduce an independent random variable $S$, and in intuitive language, we run the picture of $({\cal F}_t)$ up to time $T$, freeze the image between times $T$ and $T+S$, and then start running it again. The main result of this paper is the possibility, by performing this at all the times of discontinuity of $({\cal F}_t)$, to construct a filtration $({\cal G}_t)$ which is quasi-left-continuous. Though the idea is simple, there are considerable technical difficulties

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XII: 27, 398-410, LNM 649 (1978)

**GETOOR, Ronald K.**

Homogeneous potentials (General theory of processes)

This is a development in Knight's prediction theory as described in 1007, 1008. Let $(Z_t^\mu)$ be the prediction process associated with a given measure $\mu$. Then it is shown that a bounded homogeneous right continuous supermartingale (or potential) under $\mu$ remains so under the measures $Z_t^\mu$

Keywords: Prediction theory

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XII: 28, 411-423, LNM 649 (1978)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Convergence faible et compacité des temps d'arrêt, d'après Baxter et Chacón (General theory of processes)

Baxter and Chacón (*Zeit. für W-theorie,* 40, 1977) introduced a topology on the sets of ``fuzzy'' times and of fuzzy stopping times which turn these sets into compact metrizable spaces---a fuzzy r.v. $T$ is a right continuous decreasing process $M_t$ with $M_{0-}=1$, $M_t(\omega)$ being interpreted for each $\omega$ as the distribution function $P_{\omega}\{T>t\}$. When this process is adapted the fuzzy r.v. is a fuzzy stopping time. A number of properties of this topology are investigated

Comment: See 1536 for an extension to Polish spaces

Keywords: Stopping times, Fuzzy stopping times

Nature: Exposition, Original additions

Retrieve article from Numdam

XII: 29, 424-424, LNM 649 (1978)

**DELLACHERIE, Claude**

Convergence en probabilité et topologie de Baxter-Chacón (General theory of processes)

It is shown that on the set of ordinary stopping times, the Baxter-Chacón topology is simply convergence in probability

Keywords: Stopping times

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XII: 30, 425-427, LNM 649 (1978)

**DELLACHERIE, Claude**; **MEYER, Paul-André**

Construction d'un processus prévisible ayant une valeur donnée en un temps d'arrêt (General theory of processes)

Let $T$ be a stopping time, $X$ be an integrable r.v., and put $A_t=I_{\{t\ge T\}}$ and $B_t=XA_t$. Then the previsible compensator $(\tilde B_t)$ has a previsible density $Z_t$ with respect to $(\tilde A_t)$, whose value $Z_T$ at time $T$ is $E[X\,|\,{\cal F}_{T-}]$, and in particular if $X$ is ${\cal F}_T$-measurable it is equal to $X$

Keywords: Stopping times

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XII: 33, 457-467, LNM 649 (1978)

**MAINGUENEAU, Marie Anne**

Temps d'arrêt optimaux et théorie générale (General theory of processes)

This is a general discussion of optimal stopping in continuous time. Fairly advanced tools like strong supermartingales, Mertens' decomposition are used

Comment: The subject is taken up in 1332

Keywords: Optimal stopping, Snell's envelope

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XII: 37, 491-508, LNM 649 (1978)

**MOKOBODZKI, Gabriel**

Ensembles à coupes dénombrables et capacités dominées par une mesure (Measure theory, General theory of processes)

Let $X$ be a compact metric space $\mu$ be a bounded measure. Let $F$ be a given Borel set in $X\times**R**_+$. For $A\subset X$ define $C(A)$ as the outer measure of the projection on $X$ of $F\cap(A\times**R**_+)$. Then it is proved that, if there is some measure $\lambda$ such that $\lambda$-null sets are $C$-null (the relation goes the reverse way from the preceding paper 1236!) then $F$ has ($\mu$-a.s.) countable sections, and if the property is strengthened to an $\epsilon-\delta$ ``absolute continuity'' relation, then $F$ has ($\mu$-a.s.) finite sections

Comment: This was a long-standing conjecture of Dellacherie (707), suggested by the theory of semi-polar sets. For further development see 1602

Keywords: Sets with countable sections

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XII: 38, 509-511, LNM 649 (1978)

**DELLACHERIE, Claude**

Appendice à l'exposé de Mokobodzki (Measure theory, General theory of processes)

Some comments on 1237: a historical remark, a relation with a result of Talagrand, the inclusion of a converse (due to Horowitz) to the case of finite sections, and the solution to the conjecture from 707

Keywords: Sets with countable sections, Semi-polar sets

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XII: 39, 512-514, LNM 649 (1978)

**DELLACHERIE, Claude**

Sur l'existence de certains ess.inf et ess.sup de familles de processus mesurables (General theory of processes)

The word ``essential'' in the title refers to inequalities between processes up to evanescent sets. Since in the case of a probability space consisting of one point, this means inequalities everywhere, it is clear that additional assumptions are necessary. Such essential bounds are shown to exist whenever the sample functions are upper semicontinuous in the right topology, or the left topology (and of course also if they are lower semicontinuous). This covers in particular the case of strong supermartingales and Snell's envelopes

Keywords: Essential suprema, Evanescent sets

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XII: 40, 515-522, LNM 649 (1978)

**DELLACHERIE, Claude**

Supports optionnels et prévisibles d'une P-mesure et applications (General theory of processes)

A $P$-measure is a measure on $\Omega\times**R**_+$ which does not charge $P$-evanescent sets. A $P$-measure has optional and previsible projections which are themselves $P$-measures. As usual, supports are minimal sets carrying a measure, possessing different properties like being optional/previsible, being right/left closed. The purpose of the paper is to find out which kind of supports do exist. Applications are given to honest times

Comment: See 1339 for a complement concerning honest times

Keywords: Projection theorems, Support, Honest times

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XII: 55, 746-756, LNM 649 (1978)

**DELLACHERIE, Claude**

Quelques exemples familiers, en probabilités, d'ensembles analytiques non boréliens (Descriptive set theory, General theory of processes)

There is a tendency to consider that the naive, healthy probabilist should keep away from unnecessary abstraction, and in particular from analytic sets which are not Borel. This paper shows that such sets crop into probability theory in the most natural way. For instance, while the sample space of right-continuous paths with left limits is Borel, that of right-continuous paths without restriction on the left is coanalytic and non-Borel. Also, on the Borel sample space of right-continuous paths with left limits, the hitting time of a closed set is a function which is coanalytic and non-Borel

Keywords: Analytic sets

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XII: 58, 770-774, LNM 649 (1978)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Sur le lemme de La Vallée Poussin et un théorème de Bismut (Measure theory, General theory of processes)

Bismut proved that every optional process which belongs to the class (D) is the optional projection of a (non-adapted) process whose supremum is in $L^1$. This is given a more precise form, using the relation between uniform integrability and moderate Orlicz spaces

Keywords: Uniform integrability, Class (D) processes, Moderate convex functions

Nature: Exposition, Original additions

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 08, 118-125, LNM 721 (1979)

**YOEURP, Chantha**

Sauts additifs et sauts multiplicatifs des semi-martingales (Martingale theory, General theory of processes)

First of all, the jump processes of special semimartingales are characterized (using a result of 1121, 1129 on the jump processes of local martingales). Then a similar problem is solved for multiplicative jumps, a result which includes that of Garcia and al. 1206. A technical lemma characterizes optional processes, bounded in $L^1$, whose previsible projection vanishes

Keywords: Jump processes

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 15, 199-203, LNM 721 (1979)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Une remarque sur le calcul stochastique dépendant d'un paramètre (General theory of processes)

Call a ``process'' a measurable function $X(u,t,\omega)$ where $t$ and $\omega$ are as usual and $u$ is a parameter ranging over some nice measurable space ${\cal U}$. Say that $X$ is evanescent if $X(.\,,\,.\,,\omega)\equiv0$ for a.a. $\omega$. The problem is to define previsible processes, and previsible projections defined up to evanescent sets. This is achieved following Jacod,*Zeit. für W-Theorie,* **31**, 1975. The main feature is the corresponding use of random measures, previsible random measures, and previsible dual projections

Keywords: Processes depending on a parameter, Previsible processes, Previsible projections, Random measures

Nature: Exposition, Original additions

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 17, 216-226, LNM 721 (1979)

**LETTA, Giorgio**

Quasimartingales et formes linéaires associées (General theory of processes, Martingale theory)

This paper gives a definition of a quasimartingale $X$ different from the usual one using the stochastic variation: the linear functional $E[\int_0^{\infty} H_s dX_s]$ should be relatively bounded on the vector lattice (Riesz space) of elementary previsible processes. Many classical theorems have simple proofs or elegant interpretations in this language

Keywords: Quasimartingales, Riesz spaces

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 24, 260-280, LNM 721 (1979)

**ÉMERY, Michel**

Une topologie sur l'espace des semimartingales (General theory of processes, Stochastic calculus)

The stability theory for stochastic differential equations was developed independently by Émery (*Zeit. für W-Theorie,* **41**, 1978) and Protter (same journal, **44**, 1978). However, these results were stated in the language of convergent subsequences instead of true topological results. Here a linear topology (like convergence in probability: metrizable, complete, not locally convex) is defined on the space of semimartingales. Side results concern the Banach spaces $H^p$ and $S^p$ of semimartingales. Several useful continuity properties are proved

Comment: This topology has become a standard tool. For its main application, see the next paper 1325

Keywords: Semimartingales, Spaces of semimartingales

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 29, 332-359, LNM 721 (1979)

**JEULIN, Thierry**; **YOR, Marc**

Inégalité de Hardy, semimartingales, et faux-amis (Martingale theory, General theory of processes)

The main purpose of this paper is to warn against ``obvious'' statements which are in fact false. Let $({\cal G}_t)$ be an enlargement of $({\cal F}_t)$. Assume that ${\cal F}$ has the previsible representation property with respect to a martingale $X$ which is a ${\cal G}$-semimartingale. Then it does not follow that every ${\cal F}$-martingale $Y$ is a ${\cal G}$-semimartingale. Also, even if $Y$ is a ${\cal G}$-semimartingale, its ${\cal G}$-compensator may have bad absolute continuity properties. The counterexample to the first statement involves a detailed study of the initial enlargement of the filtration of Brownian motion $(B_t)_{t\le 1}$ by the random variable $B_1$, which transforms it into the Brownian bridge, a semimartingale. Then the stochastic integrals with respect to $B$ which are ${\cal G}$-semimartingales are completely described, and this is the place where the classical Hardy inequality appears

Keywords: Hardy's inequality, Previsible representation

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 32, 378-384, LNM 721 (1979)

**SZPIRGLAS, Jacques**; **MAZZIOTTO, Gérald**

Théorème de séparation dans le problème d'arrêt optimal (General theory of processes)

Let $({\cal G}_t)$ be an enlargement of a filtration $({\cal F}_t)$ with the property that for every $t$, if $X$ is ${\cal G}_t$-measurable, then $E[X\,|\,{\cal F}_t]=E[X\,|\,{\cal F}_\infty]$. Then if $(X_t)$ is a ${\cal F}$-optional process, its Snell envelope is the same in both filtrations. Applications are given to filtering theory

Keywords: Optimal stopping, Snell's envelope, Filtering theory

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 34, 400-406, LNM 721 (1979)

**YOR, Marc**

Quelques épilogues (General theory of processes, Martingale theory, Stochastic calculus)

This is an account of current folklore, i.e., small remarks which settle natural questions, possibly published elsewhere but difficult to locate. Among the quotable results, one may mention that if a sequence of martingales converges in $L^1$, one can stop them at arbitrary large stopping times so that the stopped processes converge in $H^1$

Keywords: Local time, Enlargement of filtrations, $H^1$ space, Hardy spaces, $BMO$

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 38, 443-452, LNM 721 (1979)

**EL KAROUI, Nicole**

Temps local et balayage des semimartingales (General theory of processes)

This paper is the first one in a series of reports on the balayage of semimartingales, and the following description is common to all of them. \par Let $H$ be a right-closed optional set, and let $g_t=\sup\{s<t, s\in H\}$ and $D_t=\inf\{s>t,s\in H\}$. Put $L=g_{\infty}$. Let also $G$ be the set of all left-endpoints of intervals contiguous to $H$, i.e., of all points $g_t$ for $t\notin H$. For simplicity we assume here that $D_0=0$ and that $H=\{X=0\}$, where $X$ is a semimartingale with decomposition $X=M+V$, though for a few results (including the balayage formula itself) it is sufficient that $X=0$ on $H$. \par One of the starting points of this paper is the*balayage formula * (see Azéma-Yor, introduction to *Temps Locaux *, *Astérisque *, **52-53**): if $Z$ is a locally bounded previsible process, then $$Z_{g_t}X_t=\int_0^t Z_{g_s}dX_s$$ and therefore $Y_t=Z_{g_t}X_t$ is a semimartingale. The main problem of the series of reports is: what can be said if $Z$ is not previsible, but optional, or even progressive?\par This particular paper is devoted to the study of the non-adapted process $$K_t=\sum_{g\in G,g\le t } (M_{D_g}-M_g)$$ which turns out to have finite variation

Comment: This paper is completed by 1357

Keywords: Local times, Balayage, Balayage formula

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 39, 453-471, LNM 721 (1979)

**YOR, Marc**

Sur le balayage des semi-martingales continues (General theory of processes)

For the general notation, see 1338. This paper is independent from the preceding one 1338, and some overlap occurs. The balayage formula is extended to processes $Z$ which are not locally bounded, and the local time of the semimartingale $Y$ is computed. The class of continuous semimartingales $X$ with canonical decomposition $X=M+V$ such that $dV$ is carried by $H=\{X=0\}$ is introduced and studied. It turns out to be an important class, closely related to ``relative martingales'' (Azéma, Meyer and Yor 2623). A number of results are given, too technical to be stated here. Stopping previsible, optional and progressive processes at the last exit time $L$ from $H$ leads to three $\sigma$-fields, ${\cal F}_L^p$, ${\cal F}_L^o$, ${\cal F}_L^{\pi}$, and it was considered surprising that the last two could be different (see 1240). Here it is shown that if $X$ is a continuous uniformly integrable martingale with $X_0=0$, $E[X_{\infty}|{\cal F}_L^o]=0\neq E[X_{\infty}|{\cal F}_L^{\pi}]$

Comment: See 1357

Keywords: Local times, Balayage, Balayage formula

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 40, 472-477, LNM 721 (1979)

**STRICKER, Christophe**

Semimartingales et valeur absolue (General theory of processes)

For the general notation, see 1338. A result of Yoeurp that absolute values preserves quasimartingales is extended: convex functions satisfying a Lipschitz condition operate on quasimartingales. For $p\ge1$, $X\in H^p$ implies $|X|^p\in H^1$. Then it is shown that for a continuous adapted process $X$, it is equivalent to say that $X$ and $|X|$ are quasimartingales (or semimartingales). Then comes a result related to the main problem of this series: with the general notations above, if $X$ is assumed to be a quasimartingale such that $X_{D_t}=0$ for all $t$, if the process $Z$ is progressive and bounded, then the process $Z_{g_t}X_t$ is a quasimartingale

Comment: A complement is given in the next paper 1341. See also 1351

Keywords: Balayage, Quasimartingales

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 41, 478-487, LNM 721 (1979)

**MEYER, Paul-André**; **STRICKER, Christophe**; **YOR, Marc**

Sur une formule de la théorie du balayage (General theory of processes)

For the notation, see the review of 1340. It is shown here that under the same hypotheses, the semimartingale $Z_{g_t}X_t$ is a sum of three terms: the stochastic integral $\int_0^t \zeta_s dX_s$, where $\zeta$ is the previsible projection of $Z$, an explicit sum of jumps involving $Z-\zeta$, and a mysterious continuous process with finite variation $(R_t)$ such that $dR_t$ is carried by $H$, equal to $0$ if $Z$ was optional

Comment: See 1351, 1357

Keywords: Balayage, Balayage formula

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 42, 488-489, LNM 721 (1979)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Construction de semimartingales s'annulant sur un ensemble donné (General theory of processes)

The title states exactly the subject of this short report, whose conclusion is: in the Brownian filtration, every closed optional set is the set of zeros of a continuous semimartingale

Keywords: Semimartingales

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 50, 574-609, LNM 721 (1979)

**JEULIN, Thierry**

Grossissement d'une filtration et applications (General theory of processes, Markov processes)

This is a sequel to the papers 1209 and 1211, giving mostly applications of the theory of enlargements (turning a honest time $L$ into a stopping time) to Markov processes. The paper begins with a computation of conditional expectations relative to ${\cal F}_{L-}$, ${\cal F}_{L}$, ${\cal F}_{L+}$. This result is applied to coterminal times of a Markov process. Again a section is devoted to a general computation on two successive enlargements, which is shown to imply (with some work) Williams' well-known decomposition of Brownian paths

Keywords: Enlargement of filtrations, Williams decomposition

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 51, 610-610, LNM 721 (1979)

**STRICKER, Christophe**

Encore une remarque sur la ``formule de balayage'' (General theory of processes)

A slight extension of 1341

Keywords: Balayage

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 55, 624-624, LNM 721 (1979)

**YOR, Marc**

Un exemple de J. Pitman (General theory of processes)

The balayage formula allows the construction of many martingales vanishing on the zeros of a given continuous martingale $X$, namely martingales of the form $Z_{g_t}X_t$ where $Z$ is previsible. Taking $X$ to be Brownian motion, an example is given of a martingale vanishing on its zeros which is not of the above form

Comment: The general problem of finding all martingales which vanish on the zeros of a given continuous martingale is discussed by Azéma and Yor in 2622

Keywords: Balayage, Balayage formula

Nature: Exposition

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 57, 634-641, LNM 721 (1979)

**EL KAROUI, Nicole**

A propos de la formule d'Azéma-Yor (General theory of processes)

For the problem and notation, see the review of 1340. The problem is completely solved here, the process $Z_{g_t}X_t$ being represented as the sum of $\int_0^t Z_{g_s}dX_s$ interpreted in a generalized sense ($Z$ being progressive!) and a remainder which can be explicitly written (using optional dual projections of non-adapted processes)

Comment: This paper ends happily the whole series of papers on balayage in this volume

Keywords: Balayage, Balayage formula

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIV: 16, 140-147, LNM 784 (1980)

**ÉMERY, Michel**

Métrisabilité de quelques espaces de processus aléatoires (General theory of processes, Stochastic calculus)

As a sequel to the main work of 1324 on the topology of semimartingales, several spaces of processes defined by localization (or prelocalization) of standard spaces of martingales or processes of bounded variation are studied here, and shown to be metrizable and complete

Keywords: Spaces of semimartingales

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIV: 18, 152-160, LNM 784 (1980)

**ÉMERY, Michel**

Compensation de processus à variation finie non localement intégrables (General theory of processes, Stochastic calculus)

First an example is given of a local martingale $M$ and an unbounded previsible process $H$ such that $H.M$ exists in the sense of 1126 and 1415, but is not a local martingale. This leads to a natural enlargement of the class of local martingales, which turns out to be the same suggested by Chou in 1322 under the name of class $(\Sigma_m)$. Once the class has been so extended, the operation of previsible compensation can be extended to a class of processes with finite variation, but not locally integrable variation, and the class of special semimartingales can be also enlarged

Comment: This class has found recently a natural use in mathematical finance (Delbaen-Schachermayer 1997). Using the language of L. Schwartz 1530, it is the intersection of the set of (usual) semimartingales with the set of formal martingales

Keywords: Local martingales, Stochastic integrals, Compensators

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIV: 19, 161-172, LNM 784 (1980)

**JACOD, Jean**

Intégrales stochastiques par rapport à une semi-martingale vectorielle et changements de filtration (Stochastic calculus, General theory of processes)

Given a square integrable vector martingale $M$ and a previsible vector process $H$, the conditions implying the existence of the (scalar valued) stochastic integral $H.M$ are less restrictive than the existence of the ``componentwise'' stochastic integral, unless the components of $M$ are orthogonal (this result was due to Galtchouk, 1975). The theory of vector stochastic integrals, though parallel to the scalar theory, requires a careful theory given in this paper

Comment: Another approach, yielding an equivalent definition, is followed by L. Schwartz in his article 1530 on formal semimartingales

Keywords: Semimartingales, Stochastic integrals

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIV: 20, 173-188, LNM 784 (1980)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Les résultats de Jeulin sur le grossissement des tribus (General theory of processes, Stochastic calculus)

This is an introduction to beautiful results of Jeulin on enlargements, for which see*Zeit. für W-Theorie,* **52**, 1980, and above all the Lecture Notes vol. 833, *Semimartingales et grossissement d'une filtration *

Comment: See also 1329, 1350

Keywords: Enlargement of filtrations, Semimartingales

Nature: Exposition

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIV: 21, 189-199, LNM 784 (1980)

**YOR, Marc**

Application d'un lemme de Jeulin au grossissement de la filtration brownienne (General theory of processes, Brownian motion)

The problem considered here is the smallest enlargement of the Brownian filtration for which the process $\int_t^\infty B_s\mu(ds)$ is adapted, $\mu$ being a probability measure with a finite first moment

Comment: Note the misprint ${\cal G}$-martingale instead of ${\cal G}$-semimartingale in the statement of condition (H')

Keywords: Enlargement of filtrations

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIV: 22, 200-204, LNM 784 (1980)

**AUERHAN, J.**; **LÉPINGLE, Dominique**; **YOR, Marc**

Construction d'une martingale réelle continue de filtration naturelle donnée (General theory of processes)

It is proved in 1123 that, under a mere separability assumption, any filtration is the natural filtration of some bounded left-continuous increasing process $(A_t)$. If the filtration contains a Brownian motion $(B_t)$, then it is also the natural filtration of the continuous martingale $\int_0^t A_sdB_s$. Therefore, the natural filtration of (finitely or countably) many independent Brownian motions is generated by a single continuous martingale. Explicit constructions are discussed

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIV: 23, 205-208, LNM 784 (1980)

**SEYNOU, Aboubakary**

Sur la compatibilité temporelle d'une tribu et d'une filtration discrète (General theory of processes)

Let us say that a $\sigma$-field ${\cal G}$ is embedded into a filtration $({\cal H}_n)$ if ${\cal G}= {\cal H}_T$ for some ${\cal H}$-stopping time $T$, that a filtration $({\cal F}_n)$ is embedded into $({\cal H}_n)$ if ${\cal F}_S$ can be embedded into $({\cal H}_n)$ for every ${\cal F}$-stopping time $S$, and finally that ${\cal G}$ and ${\cal F}$ or $({\cal F}_n)$ are compatible if they can be embedded into one single filtration $({\cal H}_n)$. Then the question investigated is whether the compatibility of ${\cal G}$ and the individual $\sigma$-fields ${\cal F}_n$ implies that of ${\cal G}$ and the whole filtration $({\cal F}_n)$

Comment: This problem arose from the spectral point of view on stochastic integration as in 1123

Keywords: Filtrations

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIV: 27, 227-248, LNM 784 (1980)

**JACOD, Jean**; **MÉMIN, Jean**

Sur la convergence des semimartingales vers un processus à accroissements indépendants (General theory of processes, Stochastic calculus, Martingale theory)

A method of Kabanov, Liptzer and Shiryaev is adapted to study the convergence of a sequence of semimartingales to a process with independent increments (to be completed)

Keywords: Convergence in law, Tightness

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIV: 30, 255-255, LNM 784 (1980)

**REBOLLEDO, Rolando**

Corrections à ``Décomposition des martingales locales et raréfaction des sauts'' (General theory of processes, Martingale theory)

Concerns 1311. For the definitive version, see*Mém. Soc. Math. France,* **62**, 1979

Keywords: Central limit theorem, Skorohod topology, Local martingales, Jumps

Nature: Correction

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIV: 31, 256-281, LNM 784 (1980)

**FUJISAKI, Masatoshi**

Contrôle stochastique continu et martingales (General theory of processes)

To be completed

Keywords: Control theory

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIV: 34, 316-317, LNM 784 (1980)

**ÉMERY, Michel**

Une propriété des temps prévisibles (General theory of processes)

The idea is to prove that the general theory of processes on a random interval $[0,T[$, where $T$ is previsible, is essentially the same as on $[0,\infty[$. To this order, a continuous, strictly increasing adapted process $(A_t)$ is constructed, such that $A_0=0$, $A_T=1$

Keywords: Previsible times

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIV: 35, 318-323, LNM 784 (1980)

**ÉMERY, Michel**

Annonçabilité des temps prévisibles. Deux contre-exemples (General theory of processes)

It is shown that two standard results on previsible stopping times on a probability space, namely that every previsible time $T$ can be ``foretold'' by a strictly increasing sequence $T_n\uparrow T$, and that the $T_n$ can themselves be taken previsible, become false if exceptional sets of measure zero are not allowed

Keywords: Previsible times

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIV: 49, 500-546, LNM 784 (1980)

**LENGLART, Érik**

Tribus de Meyer et théorie des processus (General theory of processes, Stochastic calculus)

The subject of this paper is the study of the $\sigma$-field on $**R**_+\times\Omega$ generated by a family of cadlag processes including the deterministic ones, and stable under stopping at non-random times. Of course the optional and previsible $\sigma$-fields are Meyer $\sigma$-fields in this very general sense. It is a matter of wonder to see how far one can go with such simple hypotheses, which were suggested by Dellacherie 705

Comment: This beautiful paper was generally ignored. If a suggestive name had been used instead of the terminology ``Meyer $\sigma$-field'', its fate might have been different. See 1524 for an interesting application. The work of Fourati (partly unpublished) follows along the same lines, but including time reversal: see 2119

Keywords: Projection theorems, Section theorems

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XV: 21, 290-306, LNM 850 (1981)

**CHACON, Rafael V.**; **LE JAN, Yves**; **WALSH, John B.**

Spatial trajectories (Markov processes, General theory of processes)

It is well known that Markov processes with the same excessive functions are the same up to a strictly increasing continuous time-change. It is therefore natural to study spatial trajectories, i.e., trajectories up to a strictly increasing continuous time changes, and in particular to provide the space of all spatial trajectories with a reasonable $\sigma$-field so that it may carry measures. It is shown here that the space of right-continuous spatial trajectories with left-hand limits is a Blackwell space. The class of intrinsic stopping times defined on this space is also investigated

Comment: See Chacon-Jamison,*Israel J. of M.*, **33**, 1979

Keywords: Spatial trajectories

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XV: 22, 307-310, LNM 850 (1981)

**LE JAN, Yves**

Tribus markoviennes et prédiction (Markov processes, General theory of processes)

The problem discussed here is whether a given filtration is generated by a Ray process. The answer is positive under very general conditions. Knight's prediction theory (1007) is used

Keywords: Prediction theory

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XV: 23, 311-319, LNM 850 (1981)

**ALDOUS, David J.**; **BARLOW, Martin T.**

On countable dense random sets (General theory of processes, Point processes)

This paper is devoted to random sets $B$ which are countable, optional (i.e., can be represented as the union of countably many graphs of stopping times $T_n$) and dense. The main result is that whenever the increasing processes $I_{t\ge T_n}$ have absolutely continuous compensators (in which case the same property holds for any stopping time $T$ whose graph is contained in $B$), then the random set $B$ can be represented as the union of all the points of countably many independent standard Poisson processes (intuitively, a Poisson measure whose rate is $+\infty$ times Lebesgue measure). This may require, however, an innocuous enlargement of filtration. Another characterization of such random sets is roughly that they do not intersect previsible sets of zero Lebesgue measure. Note also an interesting example of a set optional w.r.t. two filtrations, but not w.r.t. their intersection

Keywords: Poisson point processes

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XV: 24, 320-346, LNM 850 (1981)

**DELLACHERIE, Claude**; **LENGLART, Érik**

Sur des problèmes de régularisation, de recollement et d'interpolation en théorie des martingales (General theory of processes)

The optional section theorem implies that an optional process $X$ is completely determined by its values $X_T$ at all stopping times. Conversely, given random variables $X_T$, ${\cal F}_T$-measurable and such that $X_S=X_T$ a.s. on the set $\{S=T\}$, is it possible to ``aggregate'' them into an optional process $X$? This is the elementary form of the general problem discussed in the paper, in the case where the random variables $X_T$ satisfy a supermartingale inequality. The problem solved is more general: the optional $\sigma$-field is replaced by any of the $\sigma$-fields considered in 1449 (including previsible, accessible, etc), and the family of all stopping times is replaced by a suitable family (called a chronology)

Keywords: General filtrations, Strong supermartingales, Snell's envelope, Section theorems

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XV: 26, 351-370, LNM 850 (1981)

**DELLACHERIE, Claude**

Mesurabilité des débuts et théorème de section~: le lot à la portée de toutes les bourses (General theory of processes)

One of the main topics in these seminars has been the application to stochastic processes of results from descriptive set theory and capacity theory, at different levels. Since these results are considered difficult, many attempts have been made to shorten and simplify the exposition. A noteworthy one was 511, in which Dellacherie introduced ``rabotages'' (306) to develop the theory without analytic sets; see also 1246, 1255. The main feature of this paper is a new interpretation of rabotages as a two-persons game, ascribed to Telgarsky though no reference is given, leading to a pleasant exposition of the whole theory and its main applications

Keywords: Section theorems, Capacities, Sierpinski's ``rabotages''

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XV: 30, 413-489, LNM 850 (1981)

**SCHWARTZ, Laurent**

Les semi-martingales formelles (Stochastic calculus, General theory of processes)

This is a natural development of the 1--1correspondence between semimartingales and $\sigma$-additive $L^0$-valued vector measures on the previsible $\sigma$-field, which satisfy a suitable boundedness property. What if boundedness is replaced by a $\sigma$-finiteness property? It turns out that these measures can be represented as formal stochastic integrals $H{\cdot} X$ where $X$ is a standard semimartingale, and $H$ is a (finitely valued, but possibly non-integrable) previsible process. The basic definition is quite elementary: $H{\cdot}X$ is an equivalence class of pairs $(H,X)$, where two pairs $(H,X)$ and $(K,Y)$ belong to the same class iff for some (hence for all) bounded previsible process $U>0$ such that $LH$ and $LK$ are bounded, the (usual) stochastic integrals $(UH){\cdot}X$ and $(UK){\cdot}Y$ are equal. (One may take for instance $U=1/(1{+}|H|{+}|K|)$.)\par As a consequence, the author gives an elegant and pedagogical characterization of the space $L(X)$ of all previsible processes integrable with respect to $X$ (introduced by Jacod, 1126; see also 1415, 1417 and 1424). This works just as well in the case when $X$ is vector-valued, and gives a new definition of vector stochastic integrals (see Galtchouk,*Proc. School-Seminar Vilnius,* 1975, and Jacod 1419). \par Some topological considerations (that can be skipped if the reader is not interested in convergences of processes) are delicate to follow, specially since the theory of unbounded vector measures (in non-locally convex spaces!) requires much care and is difficult to locate in the literature

Keywords: Semimartingales, Formal semimartingales, Stochastic integrals

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XV: 34, 523-525, LNM 850 (1981)

**STRICKER, Christophe**

Sur la caractérisation des semi-martingales (General theory of processes, Stochastic calculus)

This is a sequel to the preceding paper 1533, giving a simple proof that any semimartingale may be brought into any class ${\cal S}^p$ by a convenient change of probability

Keywords: Semimartingales, Spaces of semimartingales

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XV: 35, 526-528, LNM 850 (1981)

**YOR, Marc**

Sur certains commutateurs d'une filtration (General theory of processes)

Let $({\cal F}_t)$ be a filtration satisfying the usual conditions and ${\cal G}$ be a $\sigma$-field. Then the conditional expectation $E[.|{\cal G}]$ commutes with $E[.|{\cal F}_T]$ for all stopping times $T$ if and only if for some stopping time $S$ ${\cal G}$ lies between ${\cal F}_{S-}]$ and ${\cal F}_S]$

Keywords: Conditional expectations

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XV: 37, 547-560, LNM 850 (1981)

**JACOD, Jean**

Convergence en loi de semimartingales et variation quadratique (General theory of processes, Stochastic calculus)

The convergence in law of cadlag processes to a cadlag process being understood in the sense of Skorohod, the problem is to find sufficient conditions under which, given semimartingales $X^n$ and $X$ such that $X^n\rightarrow X$ in law, one may deduce that $[X^n,X^n]$ converges in law to $[X,X]$. This is achieved assuming a uniform bound on the expectations of the supremum of the jumps. A version of the theorem applied to processes which are not semimartingales, but are equal to semimartingales on large sets

Keywords: Semimartingales, Skorohod topology, Convergence in law

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XV: 38, 561-586, LNM 850 (1981)

**PELLAUMAIL, Jean**

Solutions faibles et semi-martingales (Stochastic calculus, General theory of processes)

From the author's summary: ``we consider a stochastic differential equation $dX=a(X)\,dZ$ where $Z$ is a semimartingale and $a$ is a previsible functional which is continuous for the uniform norm. We prove the existence of a weak solution for such an equation''. The important point is the definition of a weak solution: it turns out to be a ``fuzzy process'' in the sense of 1536, i.e., a fuzzy r.v. taking values in the Polish space of cadlag sample functions

Keywords: Stochastic differential equations, Weak solutions, Fuzzy random variables

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XV: 41, 604-617, LNM 850 (1981)

**LÉPINGLE, Dominique**; **MEYER, Paul-André**; **YOR, Marc**

Extrémalité et remplissage de tribus pour certaines martingales purement discontinues (General theory of processes, Martingale theory)

This paper consists roughly of two parts. First, the study of a filtration where all martingales are purely discontinuous, and jump on a given well-ordered optional set. Then under a simple separability assumption, one can construct one single martingale which generates the filtration. The second part deals with the same problem as in 1540, but replacing continuous martingales by purely discontinuous martingales with unit jumps, and Brownian motion by a Poisson process. It is shown that the situation is much simpler, purity and extremality being equivalent in this case

Keywords: Poisson processes, Pure martingales, Previsible representation, Jumps

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XV: 42, 618-626, LNM 850 (1981)

**ITMI, Mhamed**

Processus ponctuels marqués stochastiques. Représentation des martingales et filtration naturelle quasicontinue à gauche (General theory of processes)

This paper contains a study of the filtration generated by a point process (multivariate: it takes values in a Polish space), and in particular of its quasi-left continuity, and previsible representation

Keywords: Point processes, Previsible representation

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XV: 45, 643-668, LNM 850 (1981)

**AUERHAN, J.**; **LÉPINGLE, Dominique**

Les filtrations de certaines martingales du mouvement brownien dans ${\bf R}^n$ (II) (General theory of processes, Brownian motion, Martingale theory)

This is a sequel to 1336. The problem is to describe the filtration of the continuous martingale $\int_0^t (AX_s,dX_s)$ where $X$ is a $n$-dimensional Brownian motion. It is shown that if the matrix $A$ is normal (rather than symmetric as in 1336) then this filtration is that of a (several dimensional) Brownian motion. If $A$ is not normal, only a lower bound on the multiplicity of this filtration can be given, and the problem is far from solved. The complex case is also considered. Several examples are given

Comment: Further results are given by Malric*Ann. Inst. H. Poincaré * **26** (1990)

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XVI: 17, 213-218, LNM 920 (1982)

**FALKNER, Neil**; **STRICKER, Christophe**; **YOR, Marc**

Temps d'arrêt riches et applications (General theory of processes)

This paper starts from the existence of increasing left-continuous processes $(A_t)$ which generate the previsible $\sigma$-field, i.e., every previsible process can be represented as $f(X_t)$ for some Borel function $f$ (see 1123), to prove the existence (discovered by the first named author) of ``rich'' stopping times $T$, i.e., previsible stopping times which encode the whole past up to time $T$: $\sigma(T)={\cal F}_{T-}$ (a few details are omitted here). This result leads to counterexamples: a non-reversible semimartingale (see the preceding paper 1616) and a stopping time $T$ for Brownian motion such that $L^a_T$ is not a semimartingale in its space variable $a$

Keywords: Stopping times, Local times, Semimartingales, Previsible processes

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XVI: 22, 248-256, LNM 920 (1982)

**JEULIN, Thierry**

Sur la convergence absolue de certaines intégrales (General theory of processes)

This paper is devoted to the a.s. absolute convergence of certain random integrals, a classical example of which is $\int_0^t ds/|B_s|^{\alpha}$ for Brownian motion starting from $0$. The author does not claim to prove deep results, but his technique of optional increasing reordering (réarrangement) of a process should be useful in other contexts too

Comment: This paper greatly simplifies a proof in the author's*Semimartingales et Grossissement de Filtrations,* LNM **833**, p.44

Keywords: Enlargement of filtrations

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XVI: 26, 298-313, LNM 920 (1982)

**DELLACHERIE, Claude**; **LENGLART, Érik**

Sur des problèmes de régularisation, de recollement et d'interpolation en théorie des processus (General theory of processes)

This paper is a sequel to 1524. Let $\Theta$ be a*chronology,* i.e., a family of stopping times containing $0$ and $\infty$ and closed under the operations $\land,\lor$---examples are the family of all stopping times, and that of all deterministic stopping times. The general problem discussed is that of defining an optional process $X$ on $[0,\infty]$ such that for each $T\in\Theta$ $X_T$ is a.s. equal to a given r.v. (${\cal F}_T$-measurable). While in 1525 the discussion concerned supermartingales, it is extended here to processes which satisfy a semi-continuity condition from the right

Keywords: Stopping times

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XVI: 27, 314-318, LNM 920 (1982)

**LENGLART, Érik**

Sur le théorème de la convergence dominée (General theory of processes, Stochastic calculus)

Consider previsible processes $U^n,U$ such that $U^n_T\rightarrow U_T$ in some sense at bounded previsible times $T$. The problem discussed is whether stochastic integrals $\int U^n_s dX_s$ converge (in the same sense) to $\int U_sdX_s$. Under a domination hypothesis, the answer is shown to be positive if the convergence is either weak convergence in $L^1$, or convergence in probability. The existence of the limiting process $U$ is not assumed in the paper; it is proved by a modification of an argument of Mokobodzki for which see 1110

Keywords: Stopping times, Optional processes, Weak convergence, Stochastic integrals

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XVI: 30, 348-354, LNM 920 (1982)

**HE, Sheng-Wu**; **WANG, Jia-Gang**

The total continuity of natural filtrations (General theory of processes)

Total continuity of a filtration ${\cal F}$ means that ${\cal F}_T={\cal F}_{T-}$ at every stopping time $T$, not necessarily previsible. It is shown that the filtration of a Lévy process without fixed discontinuities is totally continuous if and only if the jump size is a deterministic function of the jump time. Similarly, the natural filtration of a quasi-left continuous jump process is totally continuous if and only if the size of the $n$-th jump is a deterministic function of the jump times up to the $n$-th. It is shown that under the usual (here called ``strong'') previsible representation property, quasi-left continuity of the filtration implies total continuity

Keywords: Filtrations, Independent increments, Previsible representation, Total continuity, Lévy processes

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XLIII: 01, 3-70, LNM 2006 (2011)

**PICARD, Jean**

Representation formulae for the fractional Brownian motion (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Fractional Brownian motion, Brownian motion

Nature: Original, Survey

XLIII: 02, 73-94, LNM 2006 (2011)

**ARNAUDON, Marc**; **COULIBALY, Koléhè Abdoulaye**; **THALMAIER, Anton**

Horizontal diffusion in $C^1$ path space (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Brownian motion, Damped parallel transport, Horizontal diffusion, Monge-Kantorovich problem, Ricci curvature

Nature: Original

XLIII: 08, 215-219, LNM 2006 (2011)

**PRATELLI, Maurizio**

A Remark on the $1/H$-variation of the Fractional Brownian Motion (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Fractional Brownian motion, $p$-variation, Ergodic theorem

Nature: Exposition

XLIII: 09, 221-239, LNM 2006 (2011)

**MAROUBY, Matthieu**

Simulation of a Local Time Fractional Stable Motion (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Stable processes, Self-similar processes, Shot noise series, Local times, Fractional Brownian motion, Simulation

Nature: Original

XLIII: 11, 269-307, LNM 2006 (2011)

**PAGÈS, Gilles**; **SELLAMI, Afef**

Convergence of multi-dimensional quantized SDE's (Integration theory, Theory of processes)

Keywords: Functional quantization, Stochastic differential equations, Stratonovich integrals, Stationary quantizers, Rough paths, Itô map, Hölder semi-norm, $p$-variation

Nature: Original

XLIII: 14, 341-349, LNM 2006 (2011)

**BOULEAU, Nicolas**

The Lent Particle Method for Marked Point Processes (General theory of processes, Point processes)

Nature: Original

XLIV: 03, 61-74, LNM 2046 (2012)

**BASSE-O'CONNOR, Andreas**; **GRAVERSEN, Svend-Erik**; **PEDERSEN, Jan**

Some classes of proper integrals and generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Stochastic integration, Lévy processes, Generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes

Nature: Original

XLIV: 06, 141-148, LNM 2046 (2012)

**MARKOWSKY, Greg**

The derivative of the intersection local time of Brownian motion through Wiener chaos (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Intersection of local time, Wiener chaos

Nature: Original

XLIV: 12, 247-269, LNM 2046 (2012)

**MARTY, Renaud**; **SØLNA, Knut**

Asymptotic behavior of oscillatory fractional processes (Theory of processes, Limit theorems)

Keywords: Fractional processes, Brownian motion, Waves in random media

Nature: Original

XLIV: 13, 271-277, LNM 2046 (2012)

**VUOLLE-APIALA, Juha**

Time inversion property for rotation invariant self-similar diffusion processes (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Time inversion, Self-similar, Bessel processes, Diffusion processes, Rotation invariant, Skew product, Radial process

Nature: Original

XLIV: 14, 279-280, LNM 2046 (2012)

**BOGSO, Antoine-Marie**; **PROFETA, Christophe**; **ROYNETTE, Bernard**

On Peacocks: a general introduction to two articles (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Processes increasing in the convex order: peacocks

Nature: Exposition

XLIV: 15, 281-315, LNM 2046 (2012)

**BOGSO, Antoine-Marie**; **PROFETA, Christophe**; **ROYNETTE, Bernard**

Some examples of peacocks in a Markovian set-up (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Processes increasing in the convex order: peacocks, Conditionally monotone processes, Stochastic order, Markov process

Nature: Original

XLIV: 16, 317-374, LNM 2046 (2012)

**BOGSO, Antoine-Marie**; **PROFETA, Christophe**; **ROYNETTE, Bernard**

Peacocks obtained by normalisation; strong and very strong peacocks (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Peacocks, Conditionally monotone processes, Strong peacocks, Very strong peacocks

Nature: Original

XLIV: 17, 375-399, LNM 2046 (2012)

**HARRIS, Simon C.**; **ROBERTS, Matthew I.**

Branching Brownian motion: Almost sure growth along scaled paths (Limit theorems, Theory of processes)

Keywords: Branching Brownian motion

Nature: Original

XLIV: 19, 409-428, LNM 2046 (2012)

**BERCU, Bernard**; **BONY, Jean-François**; **BRUNEAU, Vincent**

Large deviations for Gaussian stationary processes and semi-classical analysis (Limit theorems, theory of processes)

Keywords: Large deviations, Gaussian processes, Toeplitz matrices, Distribution of eigenvalues

Nature: Original

XLIV: 20, 429-465, LNM 2046 (2012)

**LÉONARD, Christian**

Girsanov theory under a finite entropy condition (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Stochastic processes, Relative entropy, Girsanov's theory, Diffusion processes, Processes with jumps

Nature: Original

XLV: 02, 93-121, LNM 2078 (2013)

**PROKAJ, Vilmos**

Some Sufficient Conditions for the Ergodicity of the Lévy Transformation (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Ergodic theory, Lévy process

Nature: Original

XLV: 06, 167-180, LNM 2078 (2013)

**BROSSARD, Jean**; **LEURIDAN, Christophe**

Characterising Ocone Local Martingales with Reflections (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Ocone matingales, reflection principle

Nature: Original

XLV: 07, 181-199, LNM 2078 (2013)

**HASHIMOTO, Hiroya**

Approximation and Stability of Solutions of SDEs Driven by a Symmetric $\alpha$-Stable Process with Non-Lipschitz Coefficients (Theory of processes)

Keywords: $\alpha$-stable processes, Euler-Maruyama approximation, stability of solution

Nature: Original

XLV: 08, 201-244, LNM 2078 (2013)

**CUCHIERO, Christa**; **TEICHMANN, Josef**

Path Properties and Regularity of Affine Processes on General State Spaces (Theory of processes)

Keywords: affine processes, path properties, regularity, Markov semimartingales

Nature: Original

XLV: 09, 245-275, LNM 2078 (2013)

**JACOB, Emmanuel**

Langevin Process Reflected on a Partially Elastic Boundary II (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Langevin process, second order reflection, recurrent extension, excursion measure, stochastic differential equations, $h$-transform

Nature: Original

XLV: 10, 277-300, LNM 2078 (2013)

**DONEY, R. A.**; **VAKEROUDIS, S.**

Windings of Planar Stable Processes (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Stable processes, Lévy processes, Brownian motion, windings, exit time from a cone, Spitzer's Theorem, skew-product representation, Lamperti's relation, Law of the Iterated Logarithm for small times

Nature: Original

XLV: 11, 301-304, LNM 2078 (2013)

**SOKOL, Alexander**

An Elementary Proof that the First Hitting Time of an Open Set by a Jump Process is a Stopping Time (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Stopping time, Jump process, First hitting time

Nature: Original

XLV: 13, 323-351, LNM 2078 (2013)

**BOURGUIN, Solesne**; **TUDOR, Ciprian A.**

Malliavin Calculus and Self Normalized Sums (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Malliavin calculus, Stein's method, self-normalized sums, limit theorems, multiple stochastic integrals, chaos expansions

Nature: Original

XLV: 14, 353-364, LNM 2078 (2013)

**CATUOGNO, Pedro J.**; **LEDESMA, Diego S.**; **RUFFINO, Paulo R.**

A Note on Stochastic Calculus in Vector Bundles (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Vector bundles, global analysis, stochastic calculus

Nature: Original

XLV: 15, 365-400, LNM 2078 (2013)

**PAGÈS, Gilles**

Functional Co-monotony of Processes with Applications to Peacocks and Barrier Options (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Co-monotony, antithetic simulation method, processes with independent increments, Liouville processes, fractional Brownian motion, Asian options, sensitivity, barrier options

Nature: Original

XLV: 18, 459-481, LNM 2078 (2013)

**MICLO, Laurent**; **MONMARCHÉ, Pierre**

Étude spectrale minutieuse de processus moins indécis que les autres (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Non-reversible Markov processes,convergence to equilibrium

Nature: Original

XLVI: 07, 207-230, LNM 2123 (2014)

**LÉONARD, Christian**

Some properties of path measures (Theory of processes)

Keywords: unbounded measure, conditional expectation, relative entropy, stochastic processes, Schrödinger problem

Nature: Original

XLVI: 08, 231-292, LNM 2123 (2014)

**CATTIAUX, Patrick**; **GUILLIN, Arnaud**

Semi Log-Concave Markov Diffusions (Theory of processes)

Nature: Original

Guide détaillé de la théorie ``générale'' des processus (General theory of processes)

This paper states and comments the essential results of a theory which was considered difficult in those times. New terminology was introduced (for instance, the accessible and previsible $\sigma$-fields) though not quite the definitive one (the word ``optional'' only timidly appears instead of the awkward ``well-measurable''). A few new results on the $\sigma$-fields ${\cal F}_{T-}$ and increasing processes are given at the end, the only ones to be proved

Comment: This paper had pedagogical importance in its time, but is now obsolete

Keywords: Previsible processes, Section theorems

Nature: Exposition

Retrieve article from Numdam

III: 05, 97-114, LNM 88 (1969)

Ensembles aléatoires I (Descriptive set theory, Markov processes, General theory of processes)

A deep theorem of Lusin asserts that a Borel set with countable sections is a countable union of Borel graphs. It is applied here in the general theory of processes to show that an optional set with countable sections is a countable union of graphs of stopping times, and in the theory of Markov processes, that a Borel set which is a.s. hit by the process at countably many times must be semi-polar

Comment: See Dellacherie,

Keywords: Sets with countable sections

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

III: 10, 152-154, LNM 88 (1969)

Un résultat élémentaire sur les temps d'arrêt (General theory of processes)

This useful result asserts that a stopping time is accessible if and only if its graph is contained in a countable union of graphs of previsible stopping times

Comment: Before this was noticed, accessible stopping times were considered important. After this remark, previsible stopping times came to the forefront

Keywords: Stopping times, Accessible times, Previsible times

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

III: 11, 155-159, LNM 88 (1969)

Une nouvelle démonstration des théorèmes de section (General theory of processes)

The proof of the section theorems has improved over the years, from complicated-false to complicated-true, and finally to easy-true. This was a step on the way, due to Dellacherie (inspired by Cornea-Licea,

Comment: This is essentially the definitive proof, using a general section theorem instead of capacity theory

Keywords: Section theorems, Optional processes, Previsible processes

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

IV: 05, 60-70, LNM 124 (1970)

Un exemple de la théorie générale des processus (General theory of processes)

In the case of the smallest filtration for which a given random variable is a stopping time, all the computations of the general theory can be performed explicitly

Comment: This example has become classical. See for example Dellacherie-Meyer,

Keywords: Stopping times, Accessible times, Previsible times

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

V: 15, 147-169, LNM 191 (1971)

Ensembles régénératifs, temps locaux et subordinateurs (General theory of processes, Renewal theory)

New approach to the theory of regenerative sets (Kingman; Krylov-Yushkevic 1965, Hoffmann-Jørgensen,

Comment: See Meyer 412, Morando-Maisonneuve 413, later work of Maisonneuve in 813 and later

Keywords: Local times, Subordinators, Renewal theory

Nature: Original

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V: 29, 290-310, LNM 191 (1971)

Some topologies connected with Lebesgue measure (Markov processes, General theory of processes, Potential theory)

It is a recurrent theme in the theory of stochastic processes that time sets of measure $0$ should be ignored. Thus topologies on the line which ignore sets of measure $0$ are useful. The main topic here is the so-called

Comment: See Doob

Keywords: Essential topology

Nature: Original

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VI: 02, 35-50, LNM 258 (1972)

Une remarque sur les temps de retour. Trois applications (Markov processes, General theory of processes)

This paper is the first step in the investigations of Azéma on the ``dual'' form of the general theory of processes (for which see Azéma (

Keywords: Homogeneous processes, Coprevisible processes, Cooptional processes, Section theorems, Projection theorems, Time reversal

Nature: Original

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VI: 05, 90-97, LNM 258 (1972)

On universal field equations (General theory of processes)

There is a pun in the title, since ``field'' here is a $\sigma$-field and not a quantum field. The author proves useful results on the $\sigma$-fields ${\cal F}_{T-}$ and ${\cal F}_{T+}$ associated with an arbitrary random variable $T$ in the paper of Chung-Doob,

Keywords: Filtrations

Nature: Original

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VI: 10, 113-117, LNM 258 (1972)

Topologies du type de Skorohod (General theory of processes)

This paper presents an adaptation of the well known Skorohod topology, to the case of an arbitrary (i.e., non-compact) interval of the line

Keywords: Skorohod topology

Nature: Original

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VI: 14, 159-163, LNM 258 (1972)

Temps d'arrêt algébriquement prévisibles (General theory of processes)

The main results concern the natural filtration of a right continuous process taking values in a Polish spaces, and defined on a Blackwell space $\Omega$. Conditions are given on a process or a random variable on $\Omega$ which insure that it will be previsible or optional under any probability law on $\Omega$

Comment: The subject has been kept alive by Azéma, who used similar techniques in several papers

Keywords: Stopping times, Previsible processes

Nature: Original

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VII: 04, 36-37, LNM 321 (1973)

Temps d'arrêt totalement inaccessibles (General theory of processes)

Given an accessible random set $H$ and a totally inaccessible stopping time $T$, whenever $T(\omega)\in H(\omega)$ then $T(\omega)$ is a condensation point of $H(\omega)$ on the left, i.e., there are uncountably many points of $H$ arbitrarily close to $T(\omega)$ on the left

Keywords: Stopping times, Accessible sets, Totally inaccessible stopping times

Nature: Original

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VII: 05, 38-47, LNM 321 (1973)

Sur les théorèmes fondamentaux de la théorie générale des processus (General theory of processes)

This paper reconstructs the general theory of processes starting from a suitable family ${\cal V }$ of stopping times, and the $\sigma$-field generated by stochastic intervals $[S,T[$ with $S,T\in{\cal V }$, $S\le T$. Section and projection theorems are proved

Comment: The idea of this paper has proved fruitful. See for instance Lenglart, 1449; Le Jan,

Keywords: Stopping times, Section theorems

Nature: Original

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VII: 18, 180-197, LNM 321 (1973)

Résultats d'Azéma en théorie générale des processus (General theory of processes)

This paper presents several results from a paper of Azéma (

Comment: These results have been included (with their optional counterpart, whose interest was discovered later) in Dellacherie-Meyer,

Keywords: Optimal stopping, Previsible processes

Nature: Exposition

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VII: 22, 217-222, LNM 321 (1973)

Sur les désintégrations régulières de L. Schwartz (General theory of processes)

This paper presents a small part of an important article of L.~Schwartz (

Comment: The contents of this paper have been considerably developed by F.~Knight in his theory of prediction. See 1007

Keywords: Previsible projections, Optional projections, Prediction theory

Nature: Exposition, Original additions

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VII: 23, 223-247, LNM 321 (1973)

Sur un problème de filtration (General theory of processes)

This is an attempt to present, in the usual language of the seminar, a a simple case from filtering theory (additive white noise in one dimension). The results proved are the Kallianpur-Striebel formula (

Keywords: Filtering theory, Innovation

Nature: Exposition

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VIII: 04, 22-24, LNM 381 (1974)

Un ensemble progressivement mesurable... (General theory of processes)

The set of starting times of Brownian excursions from $0$ is a well-known example of a progressive set which does not contain any graph of stopping time. Here it is shown that considering the same set for the excursions from any $a$ and taking the union of all $a$, the corresponding set has the same property and has uncountable sections

Comment: Other such examples are known, such as the set of times at which the law of the iterated logarithm fails

Keywords: Progressive sets, Section theorems

Nature: Original

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VIII: 05, 25-26, LNM 381 (1974)

Intégrales stochastiques par rapport aux processus de Wiener et de Poisson (General theory of processes)

This paper shows that the previsible representation property of Brownian motion and the (compensated) Poisson processes is a consequence of the Wiener and Poisson measures being unique solutions of martingale problems

Comment: A gap in the proof is filled in 928 and 2002. This is a very important paper, opening the way to a series of investigations on the relations between previsible representation and extremality. See Jacod-Yor,

Keywords: Brownian motion, Poisson processes, Previsible representation

Nature: Original

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VIII: 14, 262-288, LNM 381 (1974)

Les travaux d'Azéma sur le retournement du temps (General theory of processes, Markov processes)

This paper is an exposition of a paper by Azéma (

Comment: This paper follows (with considerable progress) the line of 602. The names given by Azéma to right and left additive functionals are exchanged. Another difference with Azéma's original paper is the fact that the lifetime $\zeta$ does not appear. All these results have been included in Dellacherie-Maisonneuve-Meyer,

Keywords: Time reversal, Shift operators, Killing operators, Cooptional processes, Coprevisible processes, Additive functionals, Left additive functionals

Nature: Exposition, Original additions

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IX: 02, 97-153, LNM 465 (1975)

Processus stationnaires et mesures de Palm du flot spécial sous une fonction (Ergodic theory, General theory of processes)

This paper takes over several topics of 901, with important new results and often with simpler proofs. It contains results on the existence of ``perfect'' versions of helixes and stationary processes, a better (uncompleted) version of the filtration itself, a more complete and elegant exposition of the Ambrose-Kakutani theorem, taking the filtration into account (the fundamental counter is adapted). The general theory of processes (projection and section theorems) is developed for a filtered flow, taking into account the fact that the filtrations are uncompleted. It is shown that any bounded measure that does not charge ``polar sets'' is the Palm measure of some increasing helix (see also Geman-Horowitz (

Keywords: Filtered flows, Flow under a function, Ambrose-Kakutani theorem, Helix, Palm measures, Perfection, Point processes

Nature: Original

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IX: 06, 226-236, LNM 465 (1975)

Sur la représentation des martingales comme intégrales stochastiques dans les processus ponctuels (General theory of processes)

Dellacherie has studied in 405 the filtration generated by a point process with one single jump. His study is extended here to the filtration generated by a discrete point process. It is shown in particular how to construct a martingale which has the previsible representation property

Comment: In spite or because of its simplicity, this paper has become a standard reference in the field. For a general account of the subject, see He-Wang-Yan,

Keywords: Point processes, Previsible representation

Nature: Original

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IX: 08, 239-245, LNM 465 (1975)

Un nouveau théorème de projection et de section (General theory of processes)

Optional section and projection theorems are proved without assuming the ``usual conditions'' on the filtration

Comment: This paper is obsolete. As stated at the end by the authors, the result could have been deduced from the general theorem in Dellacherie 705. The result takes its definitive form in Dellacherie-Meyer,

Keywords: Section theorems, Optional processes, Projection theorems

Nature: Original

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IX: 25, 466-470, LNM 465 (1975)

Génération d'une famille de tribus par un processus croissant (General theory of processes)

The previsible and optional $\sigma$-fields of a filtration $({\cal F}_t)$ on $\Omega$ are studied without the usual hypotheses: no measure is involved, and the filtration is not right continuous. It is proved that if the $\sigma$-fields ${\cal F}_{t-}$ are separable, then so is the previsible $\sigma$-field, and the filtration is the natural one for a continuous strictly increasing process. A similar result is proved for the optional $\sigma$-field assuming $\Omega$ is a Blackwell space, and then every measurable adapted process is optional

Comment: Making the filtration right continuous generally destroys the separability of the optional $\sigma$-field

Keywords: Previsible processes, Optional processes

Nature: Original

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IX: 28, 494-494, LNM 465 (1975)

Correction à ``Intégrales stochastiques par rapport...'' (General theory of processes)

This paper completes a gap in the simple proof of the previsible representation property of the Wiener process, given by Dellacherie 805

Comment: Another way of filling this gap is given by Ruiz de Chavez 1821. The same gap for the Poisson process is corrected in 2002

Keywords: Previsible representation

Nature: Original

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IX: 37, 556-564, LNM 465 (1975)

Retour aux retournements (Markov processes, General theory of processes)

The first part of the talk is devoted to an important correction to the theorem on p.285 of 814 (Azéma's theory of cooptional and coprevisible sets and its application to Markov processes): the definition of left additive functionals should allow an a.s. explosion at time 0 for initial points belonging to a polar set. The second part belongs to the general theory of processes: if the index set is not the right half-line as usual but the left half-line, the section and projection theorems must be modified in a not quite trivial way

Comment: See Chapter XXVIII of Dellacherie-Maisonneuve-Meyer

Keywords: Time reversal, Cooptional processes, Coprevisible processes, Homogeneous processes

Nature: Exposition, Original additions

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X: 07, 86-103, LNM 511 (1976)

La théorie de la prédiction de F. Knight (General theory of processes)

This paper is devoted to the work of Knight,

Comment: The results are related to those of Schwartz (presented in 722), the main difference being that the future is predicted instead of the whole path. Knight has devoted to this subject the

Keywords: Prediction theory

Nature: Exposition, Original additions

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X: 08, 104-117, LNM 511 (1976)

Sur la théorie de la prédiction, et le problème de décomposition des tribus ${\cal F}^{\circ}_{t+}$ (General theory of processes)

This paper contains another version of Knight's theory (preceding paper 1007) for cadlag process instead of measurable processes. These results then are applied to the pathology of germ fields: a natural measurability conjecture does not hold, and an example is given of a process $X_t$ such that its natural $\sigma$-field ${\cal F}_{1+}$ is not generated by ${\cal F}_{1}$ and the germ-field at $0$ of the process $(X_{1+s})$

Comment: On the pathology of germ fields, see H. von Weizsäcker,

Keywords: Prediction theory, Germ fields

Nature: Original

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X: 09, 118-124, LNM 511 (1976)

Generation of $\sigma$-fields by step processes (General theory of processes)

On a Blackwell measurable space, let ${\cal F}_t$ be a right continuous filtration, such that for any stopping time $T$ the $\sigma$-field ${\cal F}_T$ is countably generated. Then (discarding possibly one single null set), this filtration is the natural filtration of a right-continuous step process

Comment: This answers a question of Knight,

Keywords: Point processes

Nature: Original

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X: 17, 245-400, LNM 511 (1976)

Un cours sur les intégrales stochastiques (6 chapters) (Stochastic calculus, Martingale theory, General theory of processes)

This is a systematic exposition of the theory of stochastic integration with respect to semimartingales, with the exception of stochastic differential equations. Chapter I is devoted to a quick exposition of the general theory of processes, and of the trivial stochastic integral with respect to a process of finite variation. Chapter II is the Kunita-Watanabe theory of square integrables martingales, angle and square bracket, stable subspaces, compensated sums of jumps, and the corresponding $L^2$ theory of stochastic integration. Chapter III studies a restricted class of semimartingales and introduces the Ito formula, with its celebrated applications due to Watanabe, to Brownian motion and the Poisson process. Chapter IV localizes the theory and gives the general definitions of semimartingales and special semimartingales, and studies the stochastic exponential, multiplicative decomposition. It also sketches a theory of multiple stochastic integrals. Chapter V deals with the application of the spaces $H^1$ and $BMO$ to the theory of stochastic integration, and to martingales inequalities (it contains the extension to continuous time of Garsia's ``Fefferman implies Davis implies Burkholder'' approach). Chapter VI contains more special topics: Stratonovich integrals, Girsanov's theorem, local times, representation of elements of $BMO$

Comment: This set of lectures was well circulated in its time, an intermediate stage between a research paper and a polished book form. See also 1131. Now the material can be found in many books

Keywords: Increasing processes, Stable subpaces, Angle bracket, Square bracket, Stochastic integrals, Optional stochastic integrals, Previsible representation, Change of variable formula, Semimartingales, Stochastic exponentials, Multiplicative decomposition, Fefferman inequality, Davis inequality, Stratonovich integrals, Burkholder inequalities, $BMO$, Multiple stochastic integrals, Girsanov's theorem

Nature: Exposition, Original additions

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X: 25, 521-531, LNM 511 (1976)

Séparabilité optionnelle, d'après Doob (General theory of processes)

A real valued function $f(t)$ admits a countable set $D$ as a separating set if the graph of $f$ is contained in the closure of its restriction to $D$. Doob's well known theorem asserts that every process $X$ has a modification all sample functions of which admit a common separating set $D$ (deterministic). It is shown that if $D$ is allowed to consist of (the values of) countably many stopping times, then every optional process is separable without modification. Applications are given

Comment: Doob's original paper appeared in

Keywords: Optional processes, Separability, Section theorems

Nature: Exposition, Original additions

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XI: 02, 21-26, LNM 581 (1977)

Application d'un théorème de G. Mokobodzki à la théorie des flots (Ergodic theory, General theory of processes)

The purpose of this paper is to extend to the theory of filtered flows (for which see 901 and 902) the dual version of the general theory of processes due to Azéma (for which see 814 and 937), in particular the association with any measurable process of suitable projections which are homogeneous processes. An important difference here is the fact that the time set is the whole line. Here the class of measurable processes which can be projected is reduced to a (not very explicit) class, and a commutation theorem similar to Azéma's is proved. The proof uses the technique of

Keywords: Filtered flows, Stationary processes, Projection theorems, Medial limits

Nature: Original

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XI: 05, 47-50, LNM 581 (1977)

Deux remarques sur la séparabilité optionnelle (General theory of processes)

Optional separability was defined by Doob,

Keywords: Optional processes, Separability, Changes of time

Nature: Original

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XI: 06, 51-58, LNM 581 (1977)

Stopping times with given laws (General theory of processes)

Given a filtration ${\cal A}_t$ such that for all $t>0$ the law $P$ restricted to ${\cal A}_t$ is non-atomic, then for every law $\mu$ on the half-line there exists a stopping time with law $\mu$. The proof uses an interesting measure theoretic lemma on decreasing sequences of non-atomic $\sigma$-fields

Comment: It follows that the Brownian filtration contains a process whose law is that of a Poisson process (though of course it is not a Poisson process

Keywords: Stopping

Nature: Original

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XI: 08, 65-78, LNM 581 (1977)

Les changements de temps en théorie générale des processus (General theory of processes)

Given a filtration $({\cal F}_t)$ and a continuous adapted increasing process $(C_t)$, consider its right inverse $(j_t)$ and left inverse $(i_t)$, and the time-changed filtration $\overline{\cal F}_t={\cal F}_{j_t}$. The problem is to study the relation between optional/previsible processes of the time-changed filtration and time-changed optional/previsible processes of the original filtration, to see how the projections or dual projections are related, etc. The results are satisfactory, and require a lot of care

Comment: This paper was originally an exposition by the second author of an unpublished paper of the first author, and many ``I''s remained in spite of the final joint autorship. See the next paper 1109 for the discontinuous case

Keywords: Changes of time

Nature: Original

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XI: 09, 79-108, LNM 581 (1977)

Théorie générale et changement de temps (General theory of processes)

The results of the preceding paper 1108 are extended to arbitrary changes of times, i.e., without the continuity assumption on the increasing process. They require even more care

Comment: Unfortunately, the material presentation of this paper is rather poor. For related results, see 1333

Keywords: Changes of time

Nature: Original

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XI: 10, 109-119, LNM 581 (1977)

Convergence faible de processus, d'après Mokobodzki (General theory of processes)

The following simple question of Benveniste was answered positively by Mokobodzki (

Keywords: Weak convergence in $L^1$

Nature: Exposition

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XI: 14, 257-297, LNM 581 (1977)

Sur les théories du filtrage et de la prédiction (General theory of processes, Markov processes)

To be completed

Comment: MR 57, 10801

Keywords: Filtering theory, Prediction theory

Nature: Original

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XI: 28, 415-417, LNM 581 (1977)

Une caractérisation des processus prévisibles (General theory of processes)

One of the results of this short paper is the following: a bounded optional process $X$ is previsible if and only if, for every martingale $M$ of integrable variation, the Stieltjes integral process $X\sc M$ is a martingale

Keywords: Previsible processes

Nature: Original

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XI: 34, 493-501, LNM 581 (1977)

A propos d'un lemme de Ch. Yoeurp (General theory of processes, Martingale theory)

Yoeurp's lemma is the following: if $A$ is a previsible process of bounded variation, its square bracket $[A,L]$ with any local martingale $L$ is a local martingale. This useful result was not easily accessible, thus a complete proof is given, with several new applications---in particular, this characterizes previsible processes of bounded variation among semimartingales

Keywords: Yoeurp's lemma, Square bracket

Nature: Original

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XII: 03, 22-34, LNM 649 (1978)

Projection prévisible et décomposition multiplicative d'une semi-martingale positive (General theory of processes)

The problem discussed is the decomposition of a positive ($\ge0$) special semimartingale $X$ (the most interesting cases being super- and submartingales) into a product of a positive local martingale and a positive previsible process of finite variation. The problem is solved here in the greatest possible generality, on a maximal non-vanishing domain for $X$---this is a previsible stochastic interval $[0,S)$ which at $S$ may be open or closed

Comment: This papers improves on 1021 and 1023

Keywords: Semimartingales, Multiplicative decomposition

Nature: Original

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XII: 04, 35-46, LNM 649 (1978)

Décompositions multiplicatives de semimartingales exponentielles et applications (General theory of processes)

It is shown that, given two semimartingales $U,V$ such that $U$ has no jump equal to $-1$, there is a unique semimartingale $X$ such that ${\cal E}(X)\,{\cal E}(U)={\cal E}(V)$. This result is applied to recover all known results on multiplicative decompositions

Comment: The results of this paper are used in Mémin-Shiryaev 1312

Keywords: Stochastic exponentials, Semimartingales, Multiplicative decomposition

Nature: Original

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XII: 08, 57-60, LNM 649 (1978)

Sur un théorème de J. Jacod (General theory of processes)

Consider a given process $X$ adapted to a given filtration $({\cal F}_t)$. The set of laws of semimartingales consists of those laws $P$ under which $X$ is a semimartingale with respect to $({\cal F}_t)$ suitably completed. Jacod proved that the set of laws of semimartingales is convex. This is extended here to countable convex combinations, and to integrals

Comment: This easy paper has some historical interest, as it raised the problem of initial enlargement of a filtration

Keywords: Semimartingales, Enlargement of filtrations, Laws of semimartingales

Nature: Original

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XII: 09, 61-69, LNM 649 (1978)

Grossissement d'une filtration et semi-martingales~: théorèmes généraux (General theory of processes)

Given a filtration $({\cal F}_t)$ and a positive random variable $L$, the so-called

Comment: This result was independently discovered by Barlow,

Keywords: Enlargement of filtrations, Honest times

Nature: Original

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XII: 10, 70-77, LNM 649 (1978)

A propos du travail de Yor sur le grossissement des tribus (General theory of processes)

This paper adds a few comments and complements to the preceding one 1209; for instance, the enlargement map is bounded in $H^1$

Keywords: Enlargement of filtrations, Honest times

Nature: Original

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XII: 11, 78-97, LNM 649 (1978)

Grossissement d'une filtration et semi-martingales~: Formules explicites (General theory of processes)

This contains very substantial improvements on 1209, namely, the explicit computation of the characteristics of the semimartingales involved

Comment: For additional results on enlargements, see the two Lecture Notes volumes

Keywords: Enlargement of filtrations, Honest times

Nature: Original

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XII: 25, 364-377, LNM 649 (1978)

Les ralentissements en théorie générale des processus (General theory of processes)

Given a filtration $({\cal F}t)$ and a stopping time $T$, we may define a new filtration $({\cal G}_t)$ as follows: we introduce an independent random variable $S$, and in intuitive language, we run the picture of $({\cal F}_t)$ up to time $T$, freeze the image between times $T$ and $T+S$, and then start running it again. The main result of this paper is the possibility, by performing this at all the times of discontinuity of $({\cal F}_t)$, to construct a filtration $({\cal G}_t)$ which is quasi-left-continuous. Though the idea is simple, there are considerable technical difficulties

Nature: Original

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XII: 27, 398-410, LNM 649 (1978)

Homogeneous potentials (General theory of processes)

This is a development in Knight's prediction theory as described in 1007, 1008. Let $(Z_t^\mu)$ be the prediction process associated with a given measure $\mu$. Then it is shown that a bounded homogeneous right continuous supermartingale (or potential) under $\mu$ remains so under the measures $Z_t^\mu$

Keywords: Prediction theory

Nature: Original

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XII: 28, 411-423, LNM 649 (1978)

Convergence faible et compacité des temps d'arrêt, d'après Baxter et Chacón (General theory of processes)

Baxter and Chacón (

Comment: See 1536 for an extension to Polish spaces

Keywords: Stopping times, Fuzzy stopping times

Nature: Exposition, Original additions

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XII: 29, 424-424, LNM 649 (1978)

Convergence en probabilité et topologie de Baxter-Chacón (General theory of processes)

It is shown that on the set of ordinary stopping times, the Baxter-Chacón topology is simply convergence in probability

Keywords: Stopping times

Nature: Original

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XII: 30, 425-427, LNM 649 (1978)

Construction d'un processus prévisible ayant une valeur donnée en un temps d'arrêt (General theory of processes)

Let $T$ be a stopping time, $X$ be an integrable r.v., and put $A_t=I_{\{t\ge T\}}$ and $B_t=XA_t$. Then the previsible compensator $(\tilde B_t)$ has a previsible density $Z_t$ with respect to $(\tilde A_t)$, whose value $Z_T$ at time $T$ is $E[X\,|\,{\cal F}_{T-}]$, and in particular if $X$ is ${\cal F}_T$-measurable it is equal to $X$

Keywords: Stopping times

Nature: Original

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XII: 33, 457-467, LNM 649 (1978)

Temps d'arrêt optimaux et théorie générale (General theory of processes)

This is a general discussion of optimal stopping in continuous time. Fairly advanced tools like strong supermartingales, Mertens' decomposition are used

Comment: The subject is taken up in 1332

Keywords: Optimal stopping, Snell's envelope

Nature: Original

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XII: 37, 491-508, LNM 649 (1978)

Ensembles à coupes dénombrables et capacités dominées par une mesure (Measure theory, General theory of processes)

Let $X$ be a compact metric space $\mu$ be a bounded measure. Let $F$ be a given Borel set in $X\times

Comment: This was a long-standing conjecture of Dellacherie (707), suggested by the theory of semi-polar sets. For further development see 1602

Keywords: Sets with countable sections

Nature: Original

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XII: 38, 509-511, LNM 649 (1978)

Appendice à l'exposé de Mokobodzki (Measure theory, General theory of processes)

Some comments on 1237: a historical remark, a relation with a result of Talagrand, the inclusion of a converse (due to Horowitz) to the case of finite sections, and the solution to the conjecture from 707

Keywords: Sets with countable sections, Semi-polar sets

Nature: Original

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XII: 39, 512-514, LNM 649 (1978)

Sur l'existence de certains ess.inf et ess.sup de familles de processus mesurables (General theory of processes)

The word ``essential'' in the title refers to inequalities between processes up to evanescent sets. Since in the case of a probability space consisting of one point, this means inequalities everywhere, it is clear that additional assumptions are necessary. Such essential bounds are shown to exist whenever the sample functions are upper semicontinuous in the right topology, or the left topology (and of course also if they are lower semicontinuous). This covers in particular the case of strong supermartingales and Snell's envelopes

Keywords: Essential suprema, Evanescent sets

Nature: Original

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XII: 40, 515-522, LNM 649 (1978)

Supports optionnels et prévisibles d'une P-mesure et applications (General theory of processes)

A $P$-measure is a measure on $\Omega\times

Comment: See 1339 for a complement concerning honest times

Keywords: Projection theorems, Support, Honest times

Nature: Original

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XII: 55, 746-756, LNM 649 (1978)

Quelques exemples familiers, en probabilités, d'ensembles analytiques non boréliens (Descriptive set theory, General theory of processes)

There is a tendency to consider that the naive, healthy probabilist should keep away from unnecessary abstraction, and in particular from analytic sets which are not Borel. This paper shows that such sets crop into probability theory in the most natural way. For instance, while the sample space of right-continuous paths with left limits is Borel, that of right-continuous paths without restriction on the left is coanalytic and non-Borel. Also, on the Borel sample space of right-continuous paths with left limits, the hitting time of a closed set is a function which is coanalytic and non-Borel

Keywords: Analytic sets

Nature: Original

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XII: 58, 770-774, LNM 649 (1978)

Sur le lemme de La Vallée Poussin et un théorème de Bismut (Measure theory, General theory of processes)

Bismut proved that every optional process which belongs to the class (D) is the optional projection of a (non-adapted) process whose supremum is in $L^1$. This is given a more precise form, using the relation between uniform integrability and moderate Orlicz spaces

Keywords: Uniform integrability, Class (D) processes, Moderate convex functions

Nature: Exposition, Original additions

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XIII: 08, 118-125, LNM 721 (1979)

Sauts additifs et sauts multiplicatifs des semi-martingales (Martingale theory, General theory of processes)

First of all, the jump processes of special semimartingales are characterized (using a result of 1121, 1129 on the jump processes of local martingales). Then a similar problem is solved for multiplicative jumps, a result which includes that of Garcia and al. 1206. A technical lemma characterizes optional processes, bounded in $L^1$, whose previsible projection vanishes

Keywords: Jump processes

Nature: Original

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XIII: 15, 199-203, LNM 721 (1979)

Une remarque sur le calcul stochastique dépendant d'un paramètre (General theory of processes)

Call a ``process'' a measurable function $X(u,t,\omega)$ where $t$ and $\omega$ are as usual and $u$ is a parameter ranging over some nice measurable space ${\cal U}$. Say that $X$ is evanescent if $X(.\,,\,.\,,\omega)\equiv0$ for a.a. $\omega$. The problem is to define previsible processes, and previsible projections defined up to evanescent sets. This is achieved following Jacod,

Keywords: Processes depending on a parameter, Previsible processes, Previsible projections, Random measures

Nature: Exposition, Original additions

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XIII: 17, 216-226, LNM 721 (1979)

Quasimartingales et formes linéaires associées (General theory of processes, Martingale theory)

This paper gives a definition of a quasimartingale $X$ different from the usual one using the stochastic variation: the linear functional $E[\int_0^{\infty} H_s dX_s]$ should be relatively bounded on the vector lattice (Riesz space) of elementary previsible processes. Many classical theorems have simple proofs or elegant interpretations in this language

Keywords: Quasimartingales, Riesz spaces

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 24, 260-280, LNM 721 (1979)

Une topologie sur l'espace des semimartingales (General theory of processes, Stochastic calculus)

The stability theory for stochastic differential equations was developed independently by Émery (

Comment: This topology has become a standard tool. For its main application, see the next paper 1325

Keywords: Semimartingales, Spaces of semimartingales

Nature: Original

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XIII: 29, 332-359, LNM 721 (1979)

Inégalité de Hardy, semimartingales, et faux-amis (Martingale theory, General theory of processes)

The main purpose of this paper is to warn against ``obvious'' statements which are in fact false. Let $({\cal G}_t)$ be an enlargement of $({\cal F}_t)$. Assume that ${\cal F}$ has the previsible representation property with respect to a martingale $X$ which is a ${\cal G}$-semimartingale. Then it does not follow that every ${\cal F}$-martingale $Y$ is a ${\cal G}$-semimartingale. Also, even if $Y$ is a ${\cal G}$-semimartingale, its ${\cal G}$-compensator may have bad absolute continuity properties. The counterexample to the first statement involves a detailed study of the initial enlargement of the filtration of Brownian motion $(B_t)_{t\le 1}$ by the random variable $B_1$, which transforms it into the Brownian bridge, a semimartingale. Then the stochastic integrals with respect to $B$ which are ${\cal G}$-semimartingales are completely described, and this is the place where the classical Hardy inequality appears

Keywords: Hardy's inequality, Previsible representation

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 32, 378-384, LNM 721 (1979)

Théorème de séparation dans le problème d'arrêt optimal (General theory of processes)

Let $({\cal G}_t)$ be an enlargement of a filtration $({\cal F}_t)$ with the property that for every $t$, if $X$ is ${\cal G}_t$-measurable, then $E[X\,|\,{\cal F}_t]=E[X\,|\,{\cal F}_\infty]$. Then if $(X_t)$ is a ${\cal F}$-optional process, its Snell envelope is the same in both filtrations. Applications are given to filtering theory

Keywords: Optimal stopping, Snell's envelope, Filtering theory

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 34, 400-406, LNM 721 (1979)

Quelques épilogues (General theory of processes, Martingale theory, Stochastic calculus)

This is an account of current folklore, i.e., small remarks which settle natural questions, possibly published elsewhere but difficult to locate. Among the quotable results, one may mention that if a sequence of martingales converges in $L^1$, one can stop them at arbitrary large stopping times so that the stopped processes converge in $H^1$

Keywords: Local time, Enlargement of filtrations, $H^1$ space, Hardy spaces, $BMO$

Nature: Original

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XIII: 38, 443-452, LNM 721 (1979)

Temps local et balayage des semimartingales (General theory of processes)

This paper is the first one in a series of reports on the balayage of semimartingales, and the following description is common to all of them. \par Let $H$ be a right-closed optional set, and let $g_t=\sup\{s<t, s\in H\}$ and $D_t=\inf\{s>t,s\in H\}$. Put $L=g_{\infty}$. Let also $G$ be the set of all left-endpoints of intervals contiguous to $H$, i.e., of all points $g_t$ for $t\notin H$. For simplicity we assume here that $D_0=0$ and that $H=\{X=0\}$, where $X$ is a semimartingale with decomposition $X=M+V$, though for a few results (including the balayage formula itself) it is sufficient that $X=0$ on $H$. \par One of the starting points of this paper is the

Comment: This paper is completed by 1357

Keywords: Local times, Balayage, Balayage formula

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 39, 453-471, LNM 721 (1979)

Sur le balayage des semi-martingales continues (General theory of processes)

For the general notation, see 1338. This paper is independent from the preceding one 1338, and some overlap occurs. The balayage formula is extended to processes $Z$ which are not locally bounded, and the local time of the semimartingale $Y$ is computed. The class of continuous semimartingales $X$ with canonical decomposition $X=M+V$ such that $dV$ is carried by $H=\{X=0\}$ is introduced and studied. It turns out to be an important class, closely related to ``relative martingales'' (Azéma, Meyer and Yor 2623). A number of results are given, too technical to be stated here. Stopping previsible, optional and progressive processes at the last exit time $L$ from $H$ leads to three $\sigma$-fields, ${\cal F}_L^p$, ${\cal F}_L^o$, ${\cal F}_L^{\pi}$, and it was considered surprising that the last two could be different (see 1240). Here it is shown that if $X$ is a continuous uniformly integrable martingale with $X_0=0$, $E[X_{\infty}|{\cal F}_L^o]=0\neq E[X_{\infty}|{\cal F}_L^{\pi}]$

Comment: See 1357

Keywords: Local times, Balayage, Balayage formula

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 40, 472-477, LNM 721 (1979)

Semimartingales et valeur absolue (General theory of processes)

For the general notation, see 1338. A result of Yoeurp that absolute values preserves quasimartingales is extended: convex functions satisfying a Lipschitz condition operate on quasimartingales. For $p\ge1$, $X\in H^p$ implies $|X|^p\in H^1$. Then it is shown that for a continuous adapted process $X$, it is equivalent to say that $X$ and $|X|$ are quasimartingales (or semimartingales). Then comes a result related to the main problem of this series: with the general notations above, if $X$ is assumed to be a quasimartingale such that $X_{D_t}=0$ for all $t$, if the process $Z$ is progressive and bounded, then the process $Z_{g_t}X_t$ is a quasimartingale

Comment: A complement is given in the next paper 1341. See also 1351

Keywords: Balayage, Quasimartingales

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 41, 478-487, LNM 721 (1979)

Sur une formule de la théorie du balayage (General theory of processes)

For the notation, see the review of 1340. It is shown here that under the same hypotheses, the semimartingale $Z_{g_t}X_t$ is a sum of three terms: the stochastic integral $\int_0^t \zeta_s dX_s$, where $\zeta$ is the previsible projection of $Z$, an explicit sum of jumps involving $Z-\zeta$, and a mysterious continuous process with finite variation $(R_t)$ such that $dR_t$ is carried by $H$, equal to $0$ if $Z$ was optional

Comment: See 1351, 1357

Keywords: Balayage, Balayage formula

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 42, 488-489, LNM 721 (1979)

Construction de semimartingales s'annulant sur un ensemble donné (General theory of processes)

The title states exactly the subject of this short report, whose conclusion is: in the Brownian filtration, every closed optional set is the set of zeros of a continuous semimartingale

Keywords: Semimartingales

Nature: Original

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XIII: 50, 574-609, LNM 721 (1979)

Grossissement d'une filtration et applications (General theory of processes, Markov processes)

This is a sequel to the papers 1209 and 1211, giving mostly applications of the theory of enlargements (turning a honest time $L$ into a stopping time) to Markov processes. The paper begins with a computation of conditional expectations relative to ${\cal F}_{L-}$, ${\cal F}_{L}$, ${\cal F}_{L+}$. This result is applied to coterminal times of a Markov process. Again a section is devoted to a general computation on two successive enlargements, which is shown to imply (with some work) Williams' well-known decomposition of Brownian paths

Keywords: Enlargement of filtrations, Williams decomposition

Nature: Original

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XIII: 51, 610-610, LNM 721 (1979)

Encore une remarque sur la ``formule de balayage'' (General theory of processes)

A slight extension of 1341

Keywords: Balayage

Nature: Original

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XIII: 55, 624-624, LNM 721 (1979)

Un exemple de J. Pitman (General theory of processes)

The balayage formula allows the construction of many martingales vanishing on the zeros of a given continuous martingale $X$, namely martingales of the form $Z_{g_t}X_t$ where $Z$ is previsible. Taking $X$ to be Brownian motion, an example is given of a martingale vanishing on its zeros which is not of the above form

Comment: The general problem of finding all martingales which vanish on the zeros of a given continuous martingale is discussed by Azéma and Yor in 2622

Keywords: Balayage, Balayage formula

Nature: Exposition

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XIII: 57, 634-641, LNM 721 (1979)

A propos de la formule d'Azéma-Yor (General theory of processes)

For the problem and notation, see the review of 1340. The problem is completely solved here, the process $Z_{g_t}X_t$ being represented as the sum of $\int_0^t Z_{g_s}dX_s$ interpreted in a generalized sense ($Z$ being progressive!) and a remainder which can be explicitly written (using optional dual projections of non-adapted processes)

Comment: This paper ends happily the whole series of papers on balayage in this volume

Keywords: Balayage, Balayage formula

Nature: Original

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XIV: 16, 140-147, LNM 784 (1980)

Métrisabilité de quelques espaces de processus aléatoires (General theory of processes, Stochastic calculus)

As a sequel to the main work of 1324 on the topology of semimartingales, several spaces of processes defined by localization (or prelocalization) of standard spaces of martingales or processes of bounded variation are studied here, and shown to be metrizable and complete

Keywords: Spaces of semimartingales

Nature: Original

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XIV: 18, 152-160, LNM 784 (1980)

Compensation de processus à variation finie non localement intégrables (General theory of processes, Stochastic calculus)

First an example is given of a local martingale $M$ and an unbounded previsible process $H$ such that $H.M$ exists in the sense of 1126 and 1415, but is not a local martingale. This leads to a natural enlargement of the class of local martingales, which turns out to be the same suggested by Chou in 1322 under the name of class $(\Sigma_m)$. Once the class has been so extended, the operation of previsible compensation can be extended to a class of processes with finite variation, but not locally integrable variation, and the class of special semimartingales can be also enlarged

Comment: This class has found recently a natural use in mathematical finance (Delbaen-Schachermayer 1997). Using the language of L. Schwartz 1530, it is the intersection of the set of (usual) semimartingales with the set of formal martingales

Keywords: Local martingales, Stochastic integrals, Compensators

Nature: Original

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XIV: 19, 161-172, LNM 784 (1980)

Intégrales stochastiques par rapport à une semi-martingale vectorielle et changements de filtration (Stochastic calculus, General theory of processes)

Given a square integrable vector martingale $M$ and a previsible vector process $H$, the conditions implying the existence of the (scalar valued) stochastic integral $H.M$ are less restrictive than the existence of the ``componentwise'' stochastic integral, unless the components of $M$ are orthogonal (this result was due to Galtchouk, 1975). The theory of vector stochastic integrals, though parallel to the scalar theory, requires a careful theory given in this paper

Comment: Another approach, yielding an equivalent definition, is followed by L. Schwartz in his article 1530 on formal semimartingales

Keywords: Semimartingales, Stochastic integrals

Nature: Original

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XIV: 20, 173-188, LNM 784 (1980)

Les résultats de Jeulin sur le grossissement des tribus (General theory of processes, Stochastic calculus)

This is an introduction to beautiful results of Jeulin on enlargements, for which see

Comment: See also 1329, 1350

Keywords: Enlargement of filtrations, Semimartingales

Nature: Exposition

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XIV: 21, 189-199, LNM 784 (1980)

Application d'un lemme de Jeulin au grossissement de la filtration brownienne (General theory of processes, Brownian motion)

The problem considered here is the smallest enlargement of the Brownian filtration for which the process $\int_t^\infty B_s\mu(ds)$ is adapted, $\mu$ being a probability measure with a finite first moment

Comment: Note the misprint ${\cal G}$-martingale instead of ${\cal G}$-semimartingale in the statement of condition (H')

Keywords: Enlargement of filtrations

Nature: Original

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XIV: 22, 200-204, LNM 784 (1980)

Construction d'une martingale réelle continue de filtration naturelle donnée (General theory of processes)

It is proved in 1123 that, under a mere separability assumption, any filtration is the natural filtration of some bounded left-continuous increasing process $(A_t)$. If the filtration contains a Brownian motion $(B_t)$, then it is also the natural filtration of the continuous martingale $\int_0^t A_sdB_s$. Therefore, the natural filtration of (finitely or countably) many independent Brownian motions is generated by a single continuous martingale. Explicit constructions are discussed

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIV: 23, 205-208, LNM 784 (1980)

Sur la compatibilité temporelle d'une tribu et d'une filtration discrète (General theory of processes)

Let us say that a $\sigma$-field ${\cal G}$ is embedded into a filtration $({\cal H}_n)$ if ${\cal G}= {\cal H}_T$ for some ${\cal H}$-stopping time $T$, that a filtration $({\cal F}_n)$ is embedded into $({\cal H}_n)$ if ${\cal F}_S$ can be embedded into $({\cal H}_n)$ for every ${\cal F}$-stopping time $S$, and finally that ${\cal G}$ and ${\cal F}$ or $({\cal F}_n)$ are compatible if they can be embedded into one single filtration $({\cal H}_n)$. Then the question investigated is whether the compatibility of ${\cal G}$ and the individual $\sigma$-fields ${\cal F}_n$ implies that of ${\cal G}$ and the whole filtration $({\cal F}_n)$

Comment: This problem arose from the spectral point of view on stochastic integration as in 1123

Keywords: Filtrations

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIV: 27, 227-248, LNM 784 (1980)

Sur la convergence des semimartingales vers un processus à accroissements indépendants (General theory of processes, Stochastic calculus, Martingale theory)

A method of Kabanov, Liptzer and Shiryaev is adapted to study the convergence of a sequence of semimartingales to a process with independent increments (to be completed)

Keywords: Convergence in law, Tightness

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIV: 30, 255-255, LNM 784 (1980)

Corrections à ``Décomposition des martingales locales et raréfaction des sauts'' (General theory of processes, Martingale theory)

Concerns 1311. For the definitive version, see

Keywords: Central limit theorem, Skorohod topology, Local martingales, Jumps

Nature: Correction

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XIV: 31, 256-281, LNM 784 (1980)

Contrôle stochastique continu et martingales (General theory of processes)

To be completed

Keywords: Control theory

Nature: Original

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XIV: 34, 316-317, LNM 784 (1980)

Une propriété des temps prévisibles (General theory of processes)

The idea is to prove that the general theory of processes on a random interval $[0,T[$, where $T$ is previsible, is essentially the same as on $[0,\infty[$. To this order, a continuous, strictly increasing adapted process $(A_t)$ is constructed, such that $A_0=0$, $A_T=1$

Keywords: Previsible times

Nature: Original

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XIV: 35, 318-323, LNM 784 (1980)

Annonçabilité des temps prévisibles. Deux contre-exemples (General theory of processes)

It is shown that two standard results on previsible stopping times on a probability space, namely that every previsible time $T$ can be ``foretold'' by a strictly increasing sequence $T_n\uparrow T$, and that the $T_n$ can themselves be taken previsible, become false if exceptional sets of measure zero are not allowed

Keywords: Previsible times

Nature: Original

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XIV: 49, 500-546, LNM 784 (1980)

Tribus de Meyer et théorie des processus (General theory of processes, Stochastic calculus)

The subject of this paper is the study of the $\sigma$-field on $

Comment: This beautiful paper was generally ignored. If a suggestive name had been used instead of the terminology ``Meyer $\sigma$-field'', its fate might have been different. See 1524 for an interesting application. The work of Fourati (partly unpublished) follows along the same lines, but including time reversal: see 2119

Keywords: Projection theorems, Section theorems

Nature: Original

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XV: 21, 290-306, LNM 850 (1981)

Spatial trajectories (Markov processes, General theory of processes)

It is well known that Markov processes with the same excessive functions are the same up to a strictly increasing continuous time-change. It is therefore natural to study spatial trajectories, i.e., trajectories up to a strictly increasing continuous time changes, and in particular to provide the space of all spatial trajectories with a reasonable $\sigma$-field so that it may carry measures. It is shown here that the space of right-continuous spatial trajectories with left-hand limits is a Blackwell space. The class of intrinsic stopping times defined on this space is also investigated

Comment: See Chacon-Jamison,

Keywords: Spatial trajectories

Nature: Original

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XV: 22, 307-310, LNM 850 (1981)

Tribus markoviennes et prédiction (Markov processes, General theory of processes)

The problem discussed here is whether a given filtration is generated by a Ray process. The answer is positive under very general conditions. Knight's prediction theory (1007) is used

Keywords: Prediction theory

Nature: Original

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XV: 23, 311-319, LNM 850 (1981)

On countable dense random sets (General theory of processes, Point processes)

This paper is devoted to random sets $B$ which are countable, optional (i.e., can be represented as the union of countably many graphs of stopping times $T_n$) and dense. The main result is that whenever the increasing processes $I_{t\ge T_n}$ have absolutely continuous compensators (in which case the same property holds for any stopping time $T$ whose graph is contained in $B$), then the random set $B$ can be represented as the union of all the points of countably many independent standard Poisson processes (intuitively, a Poisson measure whose rate is $+\infty$ times Lebesgue measure). This may require, however, an innocuous enlargement of filtration. Another characterization of such random sets is roughly that they do not intersect previsible sets of zero Lebesgue measure. Note also an interesting example of a set optional w.r.t. two filtrations, but not w.r.t. their intersection

Keywords: Poisson point processes

Nature: Original

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XV: 24, 320-346, LNM 850 (1981)

Sur des problèmes de régularisation, de recollement et d'interpolation en théorie des martingales (General theory of processes)

The optional section theorem implies that an optional process $X$ is completely determined by its values $X_T$ at all stopping times. Conversely, given random variables $X_T$, ${\cal F}_T$-measurable and such that $X_S=X_T$ a.s. on the set $\{S=T\}$, is it possible to ``aggregate'' them into an optional process $X$? This is the elementary form of the general problem discussed in the paper, in the case where the random variables $X_T$ satisfy a supermartingale inequality. The problem solved is more general: the optional $\sigma$-field is replaced by any of the $\sigma$-fields considered in 1449 (including previsible, accessible, etc), and the family of all stopping times is replaced by a suitable family (called a chronology)

Keywords: General filtrations, Strong supermartingales, Snell's envelope, Section theorems

Nature: Original

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XV: 26, 351-370, LNM 850 (1981)

Mesurabilité des débuts et théorème de section~: le lot à la portée de toutes les bourses (General theory of processes)

One of the main topics in these seminars has been the application to stochastic processes of results from descriptive set theory and capacity theory, at different levels. Since these results are considered difficult, many attempts have been made to shorten and simplify the exposition. A noteworthy one was 511, in which Dellacherie introduced ``rabotages'' (306) to develop the theory without analytic sets; see also 1246, 1255. The main feature of this paper is a new interpretation of rabotages as a two-persons game, ascribed to Telgarsky though no reference is given, leading to a pleasant exposition of the whole theory and its main applications

Keywords: Section theorems, Capacities, Sierpinski's ``rabotages''

Nature: Original

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XV: 30, 413-489, LNM 850 (1981)

Les semi-martingales formelles (Stochastic calculus, General theory of processes)

This is a natural development of the 1--1correspondence between semimartingales and $\sigma$-additive $L^0$-valued vector measures on the previsible $\sigma$-field, which satisfy a suitable boundedness property. What if boundedness is replaced by a $\sigma$-finiteness property? It turns out that these measures can be represented as formal stochastic integrals $H{\cdot} X$ where $X$ is a standard semimartingale, and $H$ is a (finitely valued, but possibly non-integrable) previsible process. The basic definition is quite elementary: $H{\cdot}X$ is an equivalence class of pairs $(H,X)$, where two pairs $(H,X)$ and $(K,Y)$ belong to the same class iff for some (hence for all) bounded previsible process $U>0$ such that $LH$ and $LK$ are bounded, the (usual) stochastic integrals $(UH){\cdot}X$ and $(UK){\cdot}Y$ are equal. (One may take for instance $U=1/(1{+}|H|{+}|K|)$.)\par As a consequence, the author gives an elegant and pedagogical characterization of the space $L(X)$ of all previsible processes integrable with respect to $X$ (introduced by Jacod, 1126; see also 1415, 1417 and 1424). This works just as well in the case when $X$ is vector-valued, and gives a new definition of vector stochastic integrals (see Galtchouk,

Keywords: Semimartingales, Formal semimartingales, Stochastic integrals

Nature: Original

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XV: 34, 523-525, LNM 850 (1981)

Sur la caractérisation des semi-martingales (General theory of processes, Stochastic calculus)

This is a sequel to the preceding paper 1533, giving a simple proof that any semimartingale may be brought into any class ${\cal S}^p$ by a convenient change of probability

Keywords: Semimartingales, Spaces of semimartingales

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XV: 35, 526-528, LNM 850 (1981)

Sur certains commutateurs d'une filtration (General theory of processes)

Let $({\cal F}_t)$ be a filtration satisfying the usual conditions and ${\cal G}$ be a $\sigma$-field. Then the conditional expectation $E[.|{\cal G}]$ commutes with $E[.|{\cal F}_T]$ for all stopping times $T$ if and only if for some stopping time $S$ ${\cal G}$ lies between ${\cal F}_{S-}]$ and ${\cal F}_S]$

Keywords: Conditional expectations

Nature: Original

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XV: 37, 547-560, LNM 850 (1981)

Convergence en loi de semimartingales et variation quadratique (General theory of processes, Stochastic calculus)

The convergence in law of cadlag processes to a cadlag process being understood in the sense of Skorohod, the problem is to find sufficient conditions under which, given semimartingales $X^n$ and $X$ such that $X^n\rightarrow X$ in law, one may deduce that $[X^n,X^n]$ converges in law to $[X,X]$. This is achieved assuming a uniform bound on the expectations of the supremum of the jumps. A version of the theorem applied to processes which are not semimartingales, but are equal to semimartingales on large sets

Keywords: Semimartingales, Skorohod topology, Convergence in law

Nature: Original

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XV: 38, 561-586, LNM 850 (1981)

Solutions faibles et semi-martingales (Stochastic calculus, General theory of processes)

From the author's summary: ``we consider a stochastic differential equation $dX=a(X)\,dZ$ where $Z$ is a semimartingale and $a$ is a previsible functional which is continuous for the uniform norm. We prove the existence of a weak solution for such an equation''. The important point is the definition of a weak solution: it turns out to be a ``fuzzy process'' in the sense of 1536, i.e., a fuzzy r.v. taking values in the Polish space of cadlag sample functions

Keywords: Stochastic differential equations, Weak solutions, Fuzzy random variables

Nature: Original

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XV: 41, 604-617, LNM 850 (1981)

Extrémalité et remplissage de tribus pour certaines martingales purement discontinues (General theory of processes, Martingale theory)

This paper consists roughly of two parts. First, the study of a filtration where all martingales are purely discontinuous, and jump on a given well-ordered optional set. Then under a simple separability assumption, one can construct one single martingale which generates the filtration. The second part deals with the same problem as in 1540, but replacing continuous martingales by purely discontinuous martingales with unit jumps, and Brownian motion by a Poisson process. It is shown that the situation is much simpler, purity and extremality being equivalent in this case

Keywords: Poisson processes, Pure martingales, Previsible representation, Jumps

Nature: Original

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XV: 42, 618-626, LNM 850 (1981)

Processus ponctuels marqués stochastiques. Représentation des martingales et filtration naturelle quasicontinue à gauche (General theory of processes)

This paper contains a study of the filtration generated by a point process (multivariate: it takes values in a Polish space), and in particular of its quasi-left continuity, and previsible representation

Keywords: Point processes, Previsible representation

Nature: Original

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XV: 45, 643-668, LNM 850 (1981)

Les filtrations de certaines martingales du mouvement brownien dans ${\bf R}^n$ (II) (General theory of processes, Brownian motion, Martingale theory)

This is a sequel to 1336. The problem is to describe the filtration of the continuous martingale $\int_0^t (AX_s,dX_s)$ where $X$ is a $n$-dimensional Brownian motion. It is shown that if the matrix $A$ is normal (rather than symmetric as in 1336) then this filtration is that of a (several dimensional) Brownian motion. If $A$ is not normal, only a lower bound on the multiplicity of this filtration can be given, and the problem is far from solved. The complex case is also considered. Several examples are given

Comment: Further results are given by Malric

Nature: Original

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XVI: 17, 213-218, LNM 920 (1982)

Temps d'arrêt riches et applications (General theory of processes)

This paper starts from the existence of increasing left-continuous processes $(A_t)$ which generate the previsible $\sigma$-field, i.e., every previsible process can be represented as $f(X_t)$ for some Borel function $f$ (see 1123), to prove the existence (discovered by the first named author) of ``rich'' stopping times $T$, i.e., previsible stopping times which encode the whole past up to time $T$: $\sigma(T)={\cal F}_{T-}$ (a few details are omitted here). This result leads to counterexamples: a non-reversible semimartingale (see the preceding paper 1616) and a stopping time $T$ for Brownian motion such that $L^a_T$ is not a semimartingale in its space variable $a$

Keywords: Stopping times, Local times, Semimartingales, Previsible processes

Nature: Original

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XVI: 22, 248-256, LNM 920 (1982)

Sur la convergence absolue de certaines intégrales (General theory of processes)

This paper is devoted to the a.s. absolute convergence of certain random integrals, a classical example of which is $\int_0^t ds/|B_s|^{\alpha}$ for Brownian motion starting from $0$. The author does not claim to prove deep results, but his technique of optional increasing reordering (réarrangement) of a process should be useful in other contexts too

Comment: This paper greatly simplifies a proof in the author's

Keywords: Enlargement of filtrations

Nature: Original

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XVI: 26, 298-313, LNM 920 (1982)

Sur des problèmes de régularisation, de recollement et d'interpolation en théorie des processus (General theory of processes)

This paper is a sequel to 1524. Let $\Theta$ be a

Keywords: Stopping times

Nature: Original

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XVI: 27, 314-318, LNM 920 (1982)

Sur le théorème de la convergence dominée (General theory of processes, Stochastic calculus)

Consider previsible processes $U^n,U$ such that $U^n_T\rightarrow U_T$ in some sense at bounded previsible times $T$. The problem discussed is whether stochastic integrals $\int U^n_s dX_s$ converge (in the same sense) to $\int U_sdX_s$. Under a domination hypothesis, the answer is shown to be positive if the convergence is either weak convergence in $L^1$, or convergence in probability. The existence of the limiting process $U$ is not assumed in the paper; it is proved by a modification of an argument of Mokobodzki for which see 1110

Keywords: Stopping times, Optional processes, Weak convergence, Stochastic integrals

Nature: Original

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XVI: 30, 348-354, LNM 920 (1982)

The total continuity of natural filtrations (General theory of processes)

Total continuity of a filtration ${\cal F}$ means that ${\cal F}_T={\cal F}_{T-}$ at every stopping time $T$, not necessarily previsible. It is shown that the filtration of a Lévy process without fixed discontinuities is totally continuous if and only if the jump size is a deterministic function of the jump time. Similarly, the natural filtration of a quasi-left continuous jump process is totally continuous if and only if the size of the $n$-th jump is a deterministic function of the jump times up to the $n$-th. It is shown that under the usual (here called ``strong'') previsible representation property, quasi-left continuity of the filtration implies total continuity

Keywords: Filtrations, Independent increments, Previsible representation, Total continuity, Lévy processes

Nature: Original

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XLIII: 01, 3-70, LNM 2006 (2011)

Representation formulae for the fractional Brownian motion (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Fractional Brownian motion, Brownian motion

Nature: Original, Survey

XLIII: 02, 73-94, LNM 2006 (2011)

Horizontal diffusion in $C^1$ path space (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Brownian motion, Damped parallel transport, Horizontal diffusion, Monge-Kantorovich problem, Ricci curvature

Nature: Original

XLIII: 08, 215-219, LNM 2006 (2011)

A Remark on the $1/H$-variation of the Fractional Brownian Motion (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Fractional Brownian motion, $p$-variation, Ergodic theorem

Nature: Exposition

XLIII: 09, 221-239, LNM 2006 (2011)

Simulation of a Local Time Fractional Stable Motion (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Stable processes, Self-similar processes, Shot noise series, Local times, Fractional Brownian motion, Simulation

Nature: Original

XLIII: 11, 269-307, LNM 2006 (2011)

Convergence of multi-dimensional quantized SDE's (Integration theory, Theory of processes)

Keywords: Functional quantization, Stochastic differential equations, Stratonovich integrals, Stationary quantizers, Rough paths, Itô map, Hölder semi-norm, $p$-variation

Nature: Original

XLIII: 14, 341-349, LNM 2006 (2011)

The Lent Particle Method for Marked Point Processes (General theory of processes, Point processes)

Nature: Original

XLIV: 03, 61-74, LNM 2046 (2012)

Some classes of proper integrals and generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Stochastic integration, Lévy processes, Generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes

Nature: Original

XLIV: 06, 141-148, LNM 2046 (2012)

The derivative of the intersection local time of Brownian motion through Wiener chaos (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Intersection of local time, Wiener chaos

Nature: Original

XLIV: 12, 247-269, LNM 2046 (2012)

Asymptotic behavior of oscillatory fractional processes (Theory of processes, Limit theorems)

Keywords: Fractional processes, Brownian motion, Waves in random media

Nature: Original

XLIV: 13, 271-277, LNM 2046 (2012)

Time inversion property for rotation invariant self-similar diffusion processes (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Time inversion, Self-similar, Bessel processes, Diffusion processes, Rotation invariant, Skew product, Radial process

Nature: Original

XLIV: 14, 279-280, LNM 2046 (2012)

On Peacocks: a general introduction to two articles (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Processes increasing in the convex order: peacocks

Nature: Exposition

XLIV: 15, 281-315, LNM 2046 (2012)

Some examples of peacocks in a Markovian set-up (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Processes increasing in the convex order: peacocks, Conditionally monotone processes, Stochastic order, Markov process

Nature: Original

XLIV: 16, 317-374, LNM 2046 (2012)

Peacocks obtained by normalisation; strong and very strong peacocks (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Peacocks, Conditionally monotone processes, Strong peacocks, Very strong peacocks

Nature: Original

XLIV: 17, 375-399, LNM 2046 (2012)

Branching Brownian motion: Almost sure growth along scaled paths (Limit theorems, Theory of processes)

Keywords: Branching Brownian motion

Nature: Original

XLIV: 19, 409-428, LNM 2046 (2012)

Large deviations for Gaussian stationary processes and semi-classical analysis (Limit theorems, theory of processes)

Keywords: Large deviations, Gaussian processes, Toeplitz matrices, Distribution of eigenvalues

Nature: Original

XLIV: 20, 429-465, LNM 2046 (2012)

Girsanov theory under a finite entropy condition (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Stochastic processes, Relative entropy, Girsanov's theory, Diffusion processes, Processes with jumps

Nature: Original

XLV: 02, 93-121, LNM 2078 (2013)

Some Sufficient Conditions for the Ergodicity of the Lévy Transformation (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Ergodic theory, Lévy process

Nature: Original

XLV: 06, 167-180, LNM 2078 (2013)

Characterising Ocone Local Martingales with Reflections (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Ocone matingales, reflection principle

Nature: Original

XLV: 07, 181-199, LNM 2078 (2013)

Approximation and Stability of Solutions of SDEs Driven by a Symmetric $\alpha$-Stable Process with Non-Lipschitz Coefficients (Theory of processes)

Keywords: $\alpha$-stable processes, Euler-Maruyama approximation, stability of solution

Nature: Original

XLV: 08, 201-244, LNM 2078 (2013)

Path Properties and Regularity of Affine Processes on General State Spaces (Theory of processes)

Keywords: affine processes, path properties, regularity, Markov semimartingales

Nature: Original

XLV: 09, 245-275, LNM 2078 (2013)

Langevin Process Reflected on a Partially Elastic Boundary II (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Langevin process, second order reflection, recurrent extension, excursion measure, stochastic differential equations, $h$-transform

Nature: Original

XLV: 10, 277-300, LNM 2078 (2013)

Windings of Planar Stable Processes (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Stable processes, Lévy processes, Brownian motion, windings, exit time from a cone, Spitzer's Theorem, skew-product representation, Lamperti's relation, Law of the Iterated Logarithm for small times

Nature: Original

XLV: 11, 301-304, LNM 2078 (2013)

An Elementary Proof that the First Hitting Time of an Open Set by a Jump Process is a Stopping Time (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Stopping time, Jump process, First hitting time

Nature: Original

XLV: 13, 323-351, LNM 2078 (2013)

Malliavin Calculus and Self Normalized Sums (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Malliavin calculus, Stein's method, self-normalized sums, limit theorems, multiple stochastic integrals, chaos expansions

Nature: Original

XLV: 14, 353-364, LNM 2078 (2013)

A Note on Stochastic Calculus in Vector Bundles (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Vector bundles, global analysis, stochastic calculus

Nature: Original

XLV: 15, 365-400, LNM 2078 (2013)

Functional Co-monotony of Processes with Applications to Peacocks and Barrier Options (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Co-monotony, antithetic simulation method, processes with independent increments, Liouville processes, fractional Brownian motion, Asian options, sensitivity, barrier options

Nature: Original

XLV: 18, 459-481, LNM 2078 (2013)

Étude spectrale minutieuse de processus moins indécis que les autres (Theory of processes)

Keywords: Non-reversible Markov processes,convergence to equilibrium

Nature: Original

XLVI: 07, 207-230, LNM 2123 (2014)

Some properties of path measures (Theory of processes)

Keywords: unbounded measure, conditional expectation, relative entropy, stochastic processes, Schrödinger problem

Nature: Original

XLVI: 08, 231-292, LNM 2123 (2014)

Semi Log-Concave Markov Diffusions (Theory of processes)

Nature: Original