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II: 08, 140-165, LNM 51 (1968)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Guide détaillé de la théorie ``générale'' des processus (General theory of processes)

This paper states and comments the essential results of a theory which was considered difficult in those times. New terminology was introduced (for instance, the accessible and previsible $\sigma$-fields) though not quite the definitive one (the word ``optional'' only timidly appears instead of the awkward ``well-measurable''). A few new results on the $\sigma$-fields ${\cal F}_{T-}$ and increasing processes are given at the end, the only ones to be proved

Comment: This paper had pedagogical importance in its time, but is now obsolete

Keywords: Previsible processes, Section theorems

Nature: Exposition

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III: 11, 155-159, LNM 88 (1969)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Une nouvelle démonstration des théorèmes de section (General theory of processes)

The proof of the section theorems has improved over the years, from complicated-false to complicated-true, and finally to easy-true. This was a step on the way, due to Dellacherie (inspired by Cornea-Licea,*Z. für W-theorie,* **10**, 1968)

Comment: This is essentially the definitive proof, using a general section theorem instead of capacity theory

Keywords: Section theorems, Optional processes, Previsible processes

Nature: Original

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VI: 14, 159-163, LNM 258 (1972)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Temps d'arrêt algébriquement prévisibles (General theory of processes)

The main results concern the natural filtration of a right continuous process taking values in a Polish spaces, and defined on a Blackwell space $\Omega$. Conditions are given on a process or a random variable on $\Omega$ which insure that it will be previsible or optional under any probability law on $\Omega$

Comment: The subject has been kept alive by Azéma, who used similar techniques in several papers

Keywords: Stopping times, Previsible processes

Nature: Original

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VII: 18, 180-197, LNM 321 (1973)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Résultats d'Azéma en théorie générale des processus (General theory of processes)

This paper presents several results from a paper of Azéma (*Invent. Math.*, **18**, 1972) which have become (in a slightly extended version) standard tools in the general theory of processes. The problem is that of ``localizing'' a time $L$ which is not a stopping time. With $L$ are associated the supermartingale $c^L_t=P\{L>t|{\cal F}_t\}$ and the previsible increasing processes $p^L$ which generates it (and is the dual previsible projection of the unit mass on the graph of $L$). Then the left support of $dp^L$ is the smallest left-closed previsible set containing the graph of $L$, while the set $\{c^L_-=1\}$ is the greatest previsible set to the left of $L$. Other useful results are the following: given a progressive process $X$, the process $\limsup_{s\rightarrow t} X_s$ is optional, previsible if $s<t$ is added, and a few similar results

Comment: These results have been included (with their optional counterpart, whose interest was discovered later) in Dellacherie-Meyer,*Probabilités et Potentiel*, Vol. E, Chapter XX **12**--17

Keywords: Optimal stopping, Previsible processes

Nature: Exposition

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IX: 25, 466-470, LNM 465 (1975)

**MEYER, Paul-André**; **YAN, Jia-An**

Génération d'une famille de tribus par un processus croissant (General theory of processes)

The previsible and optional $\sigma$-fields of a filtration $({\cal F}_t)$ on $\Omega$ are studied without the usual hypotheses: no measure is involved, and the filtration is not right continuous. It is proved that if the $\sigma$-fields ${\cal F}_{t-}$ are separable, then so is the previsible $\sigma$-field, and the filtration is the natural one for a continuous strictly increasing process. A similar result is proved for the optional $\sigma$-field assuming $\Omega$ is a Blackwell space, and then every measurable adapted process is optional

Comment: Making the filtration right continuous generally destroys the separability of the optional $\sigma$-field

Keywords: Previsible processes, Optional processes

Nature: Original

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XI: 28, 415-417, LNM 581 (1977)

**LENGLART, Érik**

Une caractérisation des processus prévisibles (General theory of processes)

One of the results of this short paper is the following: a bounded optional process $X$ is previsible if and only if, for every martingale $M$ of integrable variation, the Stieltjes integral process $X\sc M$ is a martingale

Keywords: Previsible processes

Nature: Original

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XIII: 15, 199-203, LNM 721 (1979)

**MEYER, Paul-André**

Une remarque sur le calcul stochastique dépendant d'un paramètre (General theory of processes)

Call a ``process'' a measurable function $X(u,t,\omega)$ where $t$ and $\omega$ are as usual and $u$ is a parameter ranging over some nice measurable space ${\cal U}$. Say that $X$ is evanescent if $X(.\,,\,.\,,\omega)\equiv0$ for a.a. $\omega$. The problem is to define previsible processes, and previsible projections defined up to evanescent sets. This is achieved following Jacod,*Zeit. für W-Theorie,* **31**, 1975. The main feature is the corresponding use of random measures, previsible random measures, and previsible dual projections

Keywords: Processes depending on a parameter, Previsible processes, Previsible projections, Random measures

Nature: Exposition, Original additions

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XIII: 16, 204-215, LNM 721 (1979)

**DOLÉANS-DADE, Catherine**; **MEYER, Paul-André**

Un petit théorème de projection pour processus à deux indices (Several parameter processes)

This paper proves a previsible projection theorem in the case of two-parameter processes, with a two-parameter filtration satisfying the standard commutation property of Cairoli-Walsh. The idea is to apply successively the projection operation of 1315 to the two coordinates

Keywords: Previsible processes (several parameters), Previsible projections, Random measures

Nature: Original

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XVI: 17, 213-218, LNM 920 (1982)

**FALKNER, Neil**; **STRICKER, Christophe**; **YOR, Marc**

Temps d'arrêt riches et applications (General theory of processes)

This paper starts from the existence of increasing left-continuous processes $(A_t)$ which generate the previsible $\sigma$-field, i.e., every previsible process can be represented as $f(X_t)$ for some Borel function $f$ (see 1123), to prove the existence (discovered by the first named author) of ``rich'' stopping times $T$, i.e., previsible stopping times which encode the whole past up to time $T$: $\sigma(T)={\cal F}_{T-}$ (a few details are omitted here). This result leads to counterexamples: a non-reversible semimartingale (see the preceding paper 1616) and a stopping time $T$ for Brownian motion such that $L^a_T$ is not a semimartingale in its space variable $a$

Keywords: Stopping times, Local times, Semimartingales, Previsible processes

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

Guide détaillé de la théorie ``générale'' des processus (General theory of processes)

This paper states and comments the essential results of a theory which was considered difficult in those times. New terminology was introduced (for instance, the accessible and previsible $\sigma$-fields) though not quite the definitive one (the word ``optional'' only timidly appears instead of the awkward ``well-measurable''). A few new results on the $\sigma$-fields ${\cal F}_{T-}$ and increasing processes are given at the end, the only ones to be proved

Comment: This paper had pedagogical importance in its time, but is now obsolete

Keywords: Previsible processes, Section theorems

Nature: Exposition

Retrieve article from Numdam

III: 11, 155-159, LNM 88 (1969)

Une nouvelle démonstration des théorèmes de section (General theory of processes)

The proof of the section theorems has improved over the years, from complicated-false to complicated-true, and finally to easy-true. This was a step on the way, due to Dellacherie (inspired by Cornea-Licea,

Comment: This is essentially the definitive proof, using a general section theorem instead of capacity theory

Keywords: Section theorems, Optional processes, Previsible processes

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

VI: 14, 159-163, LNM 258 (1972)

Temps d'arrêt algébriquement prévisibles (General theory of processes)

The main results concern the natural filtration of a right continuous process taking values in a Polish spaces, and defined on a Blackwell space $\Omega$. Conditions are given on a process or a random variable on $\Omega$ which insure that it will be previsible or optional under any probability law on $\Omega$

Comment: The subject has been kept alive by Azéma, who used similar techniques in several papers

Keywords: Stopping times, Previsible processes

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

VII: 18, 180-197, LNM 321 (1973)

Résultats d'Azéma en théorie générale des processus (General theory of processes)

This paper presents several results from a paper of Azéma (

Comment: These results have been included (with their optional counterpart, whose interest was discovered later) in Dellacherie-Meyer,

Keywords: Optimal stopping, Previsible processes

Nature: Exposition

Retrieve article from Numdam

IX: 25, 466-470, LNM 465 (1975)

Génération d'une famille de tribus par un processus croissant (General theory of processes)

The previsible and optional $\sigma$-fields of a filtration $({\cal F}_t)$ on $\Omega$ are studied without the usual hypotheses: no measure is involved, and the filtration is not right continuous. It is proved that if the $\sigma$-fields ${\cal F}_{t-}$ are separable, then so is the previsible $\sigma$-field, and the filtration is the natural one for a continuous strictly increasing process. A similar result is proved for the optional $\sigma$-field assuming $\Omega$ is a Blackwell space, and then every measurable adapted process is optional

Comment: Making the filtration right continuous generally destroys the separability of the optional $\sigma$-field

Keywords: Previsible processes, Optional processes

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XI: 28, 415-417, LNM 581 (1977)

Une caractérisation des processus prévisibles (General theory of processes)

One of the results of this short paper is the following: a bounded optional process $X$ is previsible if and only if, for every martingale $M$ of integrable variation, the Stieltjes integral process $X\sc M$ is a martingale

Keywords: Previsible processes

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 15, 199-203, LNM 721 (1979)

Une remarque sur le calcul stochastique dépendant d'un paramètre (General theory of processes)

Call a ``process'' a measurable function $X(u,t,\omega)$ where $t$ and $\omega$ are as usual and $u$ is a parameter ranging over some nice measurable space ${\cal U}$. Say that $X$ is evanescent if $X(.\,,\,.\,,\omega)\equiv0$ for a.a. $\omega$. The problem is to define previsible processes, and previsible projections defined up to evanescent sets. This is achieved following Jacod,

Keywords: Processes depending on a parameter, Previsible processes, Previsible projections, Random measures

Nature: Exposition, Original additions

Retrieve article from Numdam

XIII: 16, 204-215, LNM 721 (1979)

Un petit théorème de projection pour processus à deux indices (Several parameter processes)

This paper proves a previsible projection theorem in the case of two-parameter processes, with a two-parameter filtration satisfying the standard commutation property of Cairoli-Walsh. The idea is to apply successively the projection operation of 1315 to the two coordinates

Keywords: Previsible processes (several parameters), Previsible projections, Random measures

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam

XVI: 17, 213-218, LNM 920 (1982)

Temps d'arrêt riches et applications (General theory of processes)

This paper starts from the existence of increasing left-continuous processes $(A_t)$ which generate the previsible $\sigma$-field, i.e., every previsible process can be represented as $f(X_t)$ for some Borel function $f$ (see 1123), to prove the existence (discovered by the first named author) of ``rich'' stopping times $T$, i.e., previsible stopping times which encode the whole past up to time $T$: $\sigma(T)={\cal F}_{T-}$ (a few details are omitted here). This result leads to counterexamples: a non-reversible semimartingale (see the preceding paper 1616) and a stopping time $T$ for Brownian motion such that $L^a_T$ is not a semimartingale in its space variable $a$

Keywords: Stopping times, Local times, Semimartingales, Previsible processes

Nature: Original

Retrieve article from Numdam